Collective Iranian Culturebase

Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Search Engine(β):

Kermanshah

Bakhtaran

کرمانشاه ، باختران


Kermanshah_Taghebostan_Pool.jpg
Kermanshah is a city West of Iran. Kermanshah is the capital city of Kermanshah (Bakhtaran) Province, located 525 km from Tehran in the western part of Iran and about 120 km from the border of Iraq. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. Most residents are bilingual, speaking Persian with a Kermanshahi accent as a second language alongside their native Kurdish. The religion of most of the people is Shiite Islam.
Given its antiquity, attractive landscapes and rich culture, Kermanshah is considered as one of the cradles of prehistoric cultures such as Neolithic villages. According to archaeological surveys and excavation, Kermanshah area has been occupied by prehistoric people since the Lower Paleolithic period, and continued to later Paleolithic periods till late Pleistocene period. The Lower Paleolithic evidence consists of some axes found in the Gakia area to the east of the city. The Middle Paleolithic remains have been found in the northern vicinity of the city in Tang-e Kenesht and near Taqh-e Bostan. The known Paleolithic caves in this area are Warwasi, Kobeh, and Do-Eshkaft. The region was also one of the first places in which human settlements including Asiab, Qazanchi, Tappeh Sarab, Chia Jani, and Ganj-Darreh were established between 8000-10.000 years ago. This is about the same time that the first potteries pertaining to Iran were made in Ganj-Darreh, near present-day Harsin. In May 2009, based on a research conducted by the University of Hamedan and UCL, the head of Archeology Research Center of Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization announced that the oldest prehistory village in the Middle East dating back to 9800 B.P., was discovered in Sahneh, located in west of Kermanshah.
In ancient Iranian myths, construction of the city is attributed to Tahmoures Divband, the fabulous king of Pishdadian dynasty, however it is believed that the Sassanids have constructed Kermanshah. Bahram 4. called Kermanshah gave his name to this city. It was a glorious city in Sassanid period about the 4th century AD when it became the capital city and a significant health center serving as a summer resort for Sassanid kings. In A.D. 226, following a two-year war led by the Persian Emperor, Ardeshir 1., against Kurdish tribes in the region, the empire reinstated a local Kurdish prince, Kayus of Media, to rule Kermanshah. Within the dynasty known as the House of Kayus remained a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom lasting until A.D. 380 before Ardeshir 2. removed the dynasty's last ruling member.
Kermanshah was conquered by the Arabs in A.D. 640. Under Seljuk rule in the eleventh century, it was a major cultural and commercial centre in Western Iran and the southern Kurdish region as a whole. The Safavids fortified the town, and the Qajars repulsed an attack by the Ottomans during Fathali Shah's rule. Kermanshah was occupied by Ottomans between 1723–1729 and 1731-1732.
Occupied by the Turkish army in 1915 during World War I, it was evacuated in 1917. Kermanshah played an important role in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution during the Qajar period and the Republic Movement in Pahlavi period. The City was hit hard during the Iran-Iraq War.
(Wikipedia) - Kermanshah is the capital city of Kermanshah Province, located 525 km from Tehran in the western part of Iran and about 120 km from the border of Iraq. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. The estimated population of the city is 822,921. The majority of people speak Kurdish and Persian with Kermanshahi dialect. http://www. assistnews. net/Stories/2010/s10020115. htm The religion of most of the people is Shi'a Muslim. Small numbers of Yarsan, Bahu00E1'u00EDs, Jews, and Armenians also live in Kermanshah. Kermanshah For other uses, see Kermanshah (disambiguation). Kermanshah Kermaşan کرماشان کرمانشاه Country Province County Bakhsh Established date  • Mayor  • Total  • Demonym Time zone  • Summer (DST) Postal code Area code(s) Website
—  city  —
Nickname(s): The Land of History & Myths; The Land of Eternal Lovers; The Land of Shirin & Farhad
Kermanshah
Coordinates: 34°18′51″N 47°03′54″E / 34.31417°N 47.065°E / 34.31417; 47.065Coordinates: 34°18′51″N 47°03′54″E / 34.31417°N 47.065°E / 34.31417; 47.065
 Iran
Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Central
4th century
Government
Peyman Ghorbani
Elevation 1,350 m (4,430 ft)
Population (2012)
828,313
Kermanshahi
IRST (UTC+3:30)
IRDT (UTC+4:30)
67146
0831
www.kermanshahcity.ir

Kermanshah (Kurdish: کرماشان, Kirmaşan, Persian: کرمانشاه Kermãnshãh‎, also Romanized as Kermânsâh; also known as Bakhtaran, Bākhtarān, Kermānshāhān and Qahremānshahr) is a city in and the capital of Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 784,602, in 198,117 families. The language spoken by the majority of people is Kermanshahi Kurdish and Kermanshahi Persian. Kermanshah is located 525 km from Tehran in the western part of Iran. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. The religion of most of the people is Shia Islam.

Contents
  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Prehistoric Periods
    • 1.2 Historic Periods
    • 1.3 Islamic periods
    • 1.4 Recent
    • 1.5 Naming dispute
  • 2 Demographics
  • 3 Climate
  • 4 Sightseeing
    • 4.1 Taghbostan
    • 4.2 Behistun
    • 4.3 Ghajar dynasty monuments
    • 4.4 Museums
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Higher education
  • 7 Notable people
  • 8 Photos of Kermanshah
    • 8.1 Footnotes
  • 9 Sister cities
  • 10 See also
  • 11 External links
  • 12 References
History Prehistoric PeriodsA view of Kermanshah in mid 19th century- toward south, Farokhshad Mt. and Wasi Mt. are visible at background

Given its antiquity, attractive landscapes and rich culture, Kermanshah is considered as one of the cradles of prehistoric cultures such as Neolithic villages. According to archaeological surveys and excavation, Kermanshah area has been occupied by prehistoric people since the Lower Paleolithic period, and continued to later Paleolithic periods till late Pleistocene period. The Lower Paleolithic evidence consists of some handaxes found in the Gakia area to the east of the city. The Middle Paleolithic remains have been found in the northern vicinity of the city in Tang-e Kenesht and near Taqwasan. Neanderthal Man existed in the Kermanshah region during this period. The known Paleolithic caves in this area are Warwasi, Qobeh,Malaverd and Do-Ashkaft Cave. The region was also one of the first places in which human settlements including Asiab, Qazanchi, Tappeh Sarab, Chia Jani, and Ganj-Darreh were established between 8,000-10,000 years ago. This is about the same time that the first potteries pertaining to Iran were made in Ganj-Darreh, near present-day Harsin. In May 2009, based on a research conducted by the University of Hamedan and UCL, the head of Archeology Research Center of Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization announced that the one of the oldest prehistorian village in the Middle East dating back to 9800 B.P., was discovered in Sahneh, located west of Kermanshah. Remains of later village occupations and early Bronze Age are found in a number of mound sites in the city itself.

A reconstruction of a Neanderthal male at Zagros Paleolithic Museum Historic PeriodsHellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules carved in 153 BC.

In ancient Iranian mythology, construction of the city is attributed to Tahmoures Divband, the fabulous king of Pishdadian dynasty, however it is believed that the Sassanids have constructed Kermanshah. Bahram IV called Kermanshah gave his name to this city. It was a glorious city in Sassanid period about the 4th century AD when it became the capital city and a significant health center serving as a summer resort for Sassanid kings. In AD 226, following a two-year war led by the Persian Emperor, Ardashir I, against Kurdish tribes in the region, the empire reinstated a local Kurdish prince, Kayus of Medya, to rule Kermanshah. Within the dynasty known as the House of Kayus (also Kâvusakân) remained a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom lasting until AD 380 before Ardashir II removed the dynasty's last ruling member.

Islamic periods

Kermanshah was conquered by the Arabs in AD 640. Under Seljuk rule in the eleventh century, it was a major cultural and commercial centre in Western Iran and the southern Kurdish region as a whole. The Safavids fortified the town, and the Qajars repulsed an attack by the Ottomans during Fath Ali Shah's rule (1797–1834). Kermanshah was occupied by Ottomans between 1723–1729 and 1731-1732.

Recent

Occupied by the Ottoman army in 1915 during World War I, it was evacuated in 1917. Kermanshah played an important role in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution during the Qajar period and the Republic Movement in Pahlavi period. The City was hit hard during the Iran–Iraq War, and although it was rebuilt, it has not yet fully recovered.

Naming dispute

After The Islamic Revolution in the late 1970s, the city was shortly named "Ghahramanshahr" and later the city and its province (called Kermanshahan before the revolution) were renamed Bakhtaran, apparently owing to the use of "Shah" in the original name. Bakhtaran means Western, which refers to the location of the city and the province within Iran. After the Iran–Iraq War, however, the city was renamed Kermanshah, as it resonates more with the desire of its people and the Persian and Kurdish literature and the collective memory of the Iranian people.

Demographics

Majority of the city's inhabitants are Kurds who follow Shia Islam, much like the rest of the province.

Climate

Kermanshah has a climate heavily influenced by the proximity of the Zagros mountains, classified as a Mediterranean climate (Csa) although much more continental than usually associated with that type. The city's altitude and exposed location relative to westerly winds makes precipitation a little bit high (more than twice that of Tehran), but at the same time produces huge diurnal temperature swings especially in the virtually rainless summers, which remain extremely hot during the day. Kermanshah experiences rather cold winters and there are usually rainfalls in fall and spring. Snow cover is seen for at least a couple of weeks during winter.

Climate data for Kermanshah, Iran Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. precipitation days Mean monthly sunshine hours
6.5 (43.7) 8.9 (48.0) 14.3 (57.7) 19.7 (67.5) 25.8 (78.4) 33.3 (91.9) 37.8 (100.0) 37.0 (98.6) 32.5 (90.5) 25.0 (77.0) 16.7 (62.1) 9.7 (49.5) 22.27 (72.08)
−4.3 (24.3) −3 (26.6) 1.2 (34.2) 5.1 (41.2) 8.2 (46.8) 11.4 (52.5) 16.1 (61.0) 15.4 (59.7) 10.6 (51.1) 6.4 (43.5) 1.8 (35.2) 1.7 (35.1) 5.88 (42.59)
67.1 (2.642) 62.9 (2.476) 88.9 (3.5) 69.9 (2.752) 33.7 (1.327) 0.5 (0.02) 0.3 (0.012) 0.3 (0.012) 1.3 (0.051) 29.2 (1.15) 54.3 (2.138) 70.3 (2.768) 478.7 (18.846)
9.4 9.1 10.4 8.7 5.6 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 3.6 6.0 8.1 61.7
133.3 152.5 179.8 204.0 266.6 348.0 350.3 337.9 306.0 241.8 189.0 148.8 2,858.0
Source: Hong Kong Observatory
SightseeingFrontal view of the two arches.Anahita on the left as the patron yazata of the Sassanian dynasty behind Emperor Khosrau Parviz with Ahura Mazda presenting the diadem of sovereignty on the right. Taq-e Bostan.

Kermanshah sights include Kohneh Bridge, Behistun Inscription, Taghbostan, Temple of Anahita, Dinavar, Ganj Dareh, Essaqwand Rock Tombs, Sorkh Deh chamber tomb, Malek Tomb, Hulwan, Median dakhmeh (Darbad, Sahneh), Parav cave, Do-Ashkaft Cave, Tekyeh Moavenalmolk, Dokan Davood Inscription, Sar Pol-e-Zahab, Tagh e gara, Patagh pass, Sarab Niloufar, Ghoori Ghale Cave, Khaja Barookh's House, Chiyajani Tappe, Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex, Emad al doleh Mosque, Tekyeh-e Beglarbagi, Hunters cave, Jamé Mosque of Kermanshah, Godin Tepe, Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia, and Anobanini bas relief.

Taghbostan Main article: Taq-e_Bostan

Taghbostan is a series of large rock relief from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD. This example of Sassanid art is located 5 km from the city center of Kermanshah in western Iran. It is located in the heart of the Zagros mountains, where it has endured almost 1,700 years of wind and rain.

The carvings, some of the finest and best-preserved examples of Persian sculpture under the Sassanids, include representations of the investitures of Ardashir II (379–383) and Shapur III (383–388). Like other Sassanid symbols, Taghbostan and its relief patterns accentuate power, religious tendencies, glory, honor, the vastness of the court, game and fighting spirit, festivity, joy, and rejoicing.

Sassanid kings chose a beautiful setting for their rock reliefs along an historic Silk Road caravan route waypoint and campground. The reliefs are adjacent a sacred spring that empties into a large reflecting pool at the base of a mountain cliff.

Taghbostan and its rock relief are one of the 30 surviving Sassanid relics of the Zagros mountains. According to Arthur Pope, the founder of Iranian art and archeology Institute in the USA, "art was characteristic of the Iranian people and the gift which they endowed the world with."

One of the most impressive reliefs inside the largest grotto or ivan is the gigantic equestrian figure of the Sassanid king Khosrau II (591-628 AD) mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both horse and rider are arrayed in full battle armor. The arch rests on two columns that bear delicately carved patterns showing the tree of life or the sacred tree. Above the arch and located on two opposite sides are figures of two winged angles with diadems. Around the outer layer of the arch, a conspicuous margin has been carved, jagged with flower patterns. These patterns are also found in the official costumes of Sassanid kings. Equestrian relief panel measured on 16.08.07 approx. 7.45 m across by 4.25 m high.

Behistun Main article: Behistun Inscription Bisotun * Country Type Criteria Reference Region ** Inscription history Inscription
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Cultural
ii, iii
1222
Asia-Pacific
521 BC (30th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List ** Region as classified by UNESCO

Behistun inscription is considered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون ; Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the god's place or land") is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun.

The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian. A British army officer, Henry Rawlinson, had the inscription transcribed in two parts, in 1835 and 1843. Rawlinson was able to translate the Old Persian cuneiform text in 1838, and the Elamite and Babylonian texts were translated by Rawlinson and others after 1843. Babylonian was a later form of Akkadian: both are Semitic languages. In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script.

The inscription is approximately 15 metres high by 25 metres wide, and 100 metres up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana). It is extremely inaccessible as the mountainside was removed to make the inscription more visible after its completion. The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The prostrate figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and ten one-metre figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was (oddly enough) Darius' beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.

Ghajar dynasty monuments See also: Tekyeh Mo'avenalmolk and Khaja Barookh's House

During the Qajar dynasty (1794 to 1925), Kermanshah Bazaar, Mosques and Tekyehs such as Moavenalmolk Mosque, and beautiful houses such as Khaja Barookh's House were built.

Tekyeh Moavenalmolk, is unique because it has many pictures on the walls that relate to shahnameh, despite some of its more religious ones.

Khaja Barookh's House is located in the old district of Faizabad, a Jewish neighborhood of Kermanshah. It was built by a Jewish merchant of the Qajar period, named Barookh. The house, an historical depiction of Iranian architecture, was renamed "Randeh-Kesh House", after the last owner, is a "daroongara"(pro-interior)house and is connected through a vestibule to the exterior yard and through a corridor to the interior yard. Surrounding the interior yard are rooms, brick pillars making the iwans(porches) of the house, and step-like column capitals decorated with brick-stalactite work. This house is among the rare Qajar houses with a private bathroom.

Khaja Barookh's House MuseumsInterior of the second room of Zagros Paleolithic Museum.

There are four museums that are established in old houses of Qajar period. These are Museum of ethnography at Tekyeh Moavenalmolk, and two museums of Zagros Paleolithic Museum and Museum of epigraphy and Qajar hand writings at Tekieh Biglar Baigi. The Zagros Paleolithic Museum contains rich collections of stone tools and animal fossil bones from various Paleolithic sites in Iran. It is the first established museum in Iran that devoted to Paleolithic period of Iran. Museum of traditional Martial art (Wrestling موزه پهلوانی) is another museum in Kermanshah that was established recently and contains many wax models of traditional wrestlers.

Economy

Kermanshah is one of the western agricultural core of Iran that produces grain, rice, vegetable, fruits, and oilseeds, however Kermanshah is emerging as a fairly important industrial city; there are two industrial centers with more than 256 manufacturing units in the suburb of the city. These industries include petrochemical refinery, textile manufacturing, food processing, carpet making, sugar refining, and the production of electrical equipment and tools. Kermanshah Oil Refining Company (KORC) established in 1932 by British companies, is one of the major industries in the city. After recent changes in Iraq, Kermanshah has become one of the main importing and exporting gates of Iran.

Higher education Notable peopleKarim Sanjabi, Iran's attorney in national oil's movement, leader of National Front, former minister of foreign affairs, former minister of education Photos of Kermanshah
Taghbostan Lake  
Carving of Khosrow Parviz  
 
 
Ferdowsi Square  
Anahita Temple in Kangavar  
 
Mount Dalekhani  
 
Ghouri Ghaleh Cave  
Ghouri Ghaleh Cave  
 
Bisotun Inscription  
Close-Up of Bisotun Inscription  
Taghbostan Carving  
 
Taghbostan Carving  
Tekye moaven ol molk  
Mount Parau  
Taghbostan Boulevard  
Ferdosi Square  
Mosaddegh Square  
Footnotes
  • ^ Khosrow Parviz is standing here. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below is, Khosrau dressed as a mounted Persian knight riding on his favourite horse, Shabdiz.
  • ^ Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC.
  • ^ Women playing harp while the king is standing in a boat holding his bow and arrows, from 6th century Sassanid Iran.
  • ^ Female musicians accompanying king during hunting. These are identified as unfinished carvings, the figures have been blocked-out but yet to be completed , as elsewhere on the two hunting panels in the larger iwan.
  • Sister cities



    See All 19 items matching Kermanshah in Media Gallery

    Taq-e Bostan carvings, some of the finest and best-preserved examples of Persian sculpture under the Sassanian Empire, include glorious representations of the investitures of Ardeshir II (379–383) and Shapour III (383–388)
    Taq-e Bostan rock relief from the Sassanid Empire of Persia, the dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD located 5 km from the city of Kermanshah, western Iran, in the Zagros mountains enduring almost 1,700 years of wind and rain.
    Hellenistic-era depiction of Parthian king Bahram (or Farhad) like Hercules carved in 153 B.C. The Parthian empire included the area between the Euphrates and Indus rivers and between the Amu Darya and the Persian Gulf.
    The giganitic (200x40m) Farhad Tarash is an incomplete Sassanid relief in Kermanshah, Bisotoun Mountain. According to a legend in Shahnameh of Ferdowsi it's the witness of an ancient love story about Farhad who dug the mountain for his love Shirin.
    Sassanid Taghebostan Relief Shapour 2 in crowning eremony of his son Shapour 3 .Tagh-e-Bostan and its rock relief are one of the 30 surviving Sassanid relics of the Zagros mountains.Figures of the two kings have been carved in silhouette.
    Taghebostan Kermanshah: Embossed figures of Sassanid king of kings Ardeshir 1 during coronation ceremony of Ardeshir 2. Zoroastrian deity Mithra on the left is honoring the deal. Taghebostan rock reliefs is a well preserved Sassanid collection.
    Related History Articles:

    Add definition or comments on Kermanshah

    Your Name / Alias:
    E-mail:
    Definition / Comments
    neutral points of view
    Source / SEO Backlink:
    Anti-Spam Check
    Enter text above
    Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: Kermanshah





    Happy Norooz 1393

    Home About us / Contact    Products    Services    Iranian History Today    Top Iran Links    Iranian B2B Web Directory    Historical Glossary
    Copyright @ 2004-2013 fouman.com All Rights Iranian