Collective Iranian Culturebase

Alphabetic Index : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Search Engine(β):

Egypt

Al Mesr

مصر


Achaemenid_Cambyses_Pelusium_525BC.jpg
Arab Republic of Egypt, country in northern Africa
It is one of the world's oldest civilizations. After the upper and lower Egypt were united around 3000 BC, a period of cultural achievement began and a line of native rulers that lasted nearly 3,000 years. Egypt's ancient history is divided into the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, spanning 31 dynasties and lasting to 332 BC. The Pyramids date from the Old Kingdom, the cult of Osiris and the refinement of sculpture from the Middle Kingdom, and the era of empire and the Exodus of the Jews from the New Kingdom. An Assyrian invasion occurred in the 7th century BC, and the Persian Achaemenids established a dynasty in 525 BC. The invasion by Alexander the Great in 332 BC inaugurated the Macedonian Ptolemaic period and the ascendancy of Alexandria as a centre of learning and Hellenistic culture. The Romans held Egypt from 30 BC to AD 395; later it was placed under the control of the Byzantine Empire. After the Roman emperor Constantine granted tolerance to the Christians in 313, a formal Egyptian (Coptic) church emerged. Egypt came under Arab control in 642 and ultimately was transformed into an Arabic-speaking state, with Islam as the dominant religion. Held by the Umayyad and Abbasi dynasties, in 969 it became the centre of the Fatemid dynasty. In 1250 the Mamluk dynasty established a state that lasted until 1517, when Egypt fell to the Ottoman Empire. An economic and cultural decline ensued. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914 and received nominal independence in 1922, when a constitutional monarchy was established. A group of army officers led by Jamal Abdol Naser overthrew the monarchy in 1952. A union with Syria to form the United Arab Republic (1958-61) failed. Following three wars with Israel , Egypt, under Nasser's successor, Anwar Sadat, made peace with the Jewish state, thus alienating many fellow Arab countries. Sadat was assassinated by Islamic extremists in 1981 and was succeeded by Hosni Mobarak, who continued to negotiate peace. Although Egypt took part in the coalition against Iraq during the Persian Gulf War (1991), it later began peace overtures with countries in the region, including Iraq.
Iran-Egypt ties were cut after the Islamic revolution on a row that began by renaming the Vozara St., a major street in Tehran after Khaled Estanbuli, the killer of Anwar Sadaat. Normal relations could never be restored afterwards.
(Wikipedia) - Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi), Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 80 million people live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. Monuments in Egypt such as the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx were constructed by its ancient civilization. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Thebes, and Karnak and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study. The tourism industry and the Red Sea Riviera employ about 12% of Egypt's workforce. The economy of Egypt is one of the most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and service at almost equal production levels. In early 2011, Egypt underwent a revolution, which resulted in the ousting of President Hosni Mubarak after nearly 30 years in power. Egypt This article is about the modern country. For the ancient realm, see Ancient Egypt. For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). Arab Republic of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية Ǧumhūriyyat Maṣr al-ʿArabiyyah Official languages Demonym Government Legislature Establishment Area Population Currency Time zone Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady My country, my country, my countrySorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player. You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Arabic
Egyptian
Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Mohamed Morsi
 -  Prime Minister Hesham Kandil
Parliament
 -  Upper house Shura Council
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
 -  Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3200 BC 
 -  Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated 9 July 1805 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 28 February 1922 
 -  Republic declared 18 June 1953 
 -  Total 1,002,450 km2 (30th) 387,048 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.632
 -  2011 estimate 79,602,000 (15th)
 -  2006 census 72,798,000
 -  Density 76.3/km2 (126th) 197.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $533.739 billion
 -  Per capita $6,594
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $252.458 billion
 -  Per capita $3,118
Gini (2008) 30.8 medium
HDI (2011)  0.644 medium · 113th
Egyptian pound (EGP)
EET (UTC+2b)
right
+20
EG
  • .eg
  • مصر.
a. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
b. No daylight saving time has been kept since 2011.

Egypt i/ˈiːdʒɪpt/ (Arabic: مصر‎ Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt (Arabic:  جمهورية مصر العربية (help·info)), is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of its territory of 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi) lies within North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East, and the 15th most populated in the world. The great majority of its over 82 million people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern state, having been continuously inhabited since the 10th millennium BCE. Its monuments, such as the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx, were constructed by its ancient civilization, which was one of the most advanced of its time. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest. Egypt's rich cultural legacy, as well as the attraction of its Red Sea Riviera, has made tourism a vital part of the economy, employing about 12% of the country's workforce.

The economy of Egypt is one of the most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. Egypt is considered to be a middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Muslim world.

Contents
  • 1 Names
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 Prehistory and Ancient Egypt
    • 2.2 Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt
    • 2.3 Middle Ages
    • 2.4 Ottoman Egypt
    • 2.5 Muhammad Ali dynasty
    • 2.6 Republic
      • 2.6.1 Revolution
  • 3 Geography
    • 3.1 Climate
    • 3.2 Biodiversity
  • 4 Politics
    • 4.1 Law
    • 4.2 Military
    • 4.3 Human rights
    • 4.4 Foreign relations
  • 5 Administrative divisions
  • 6 Economy
    • 6.1 Tourism
    • 6.2 Transport
  • 7 Demographics
    • 7.1 Languages
    • 7.2 Religion
    • 7.3 Largest cities
  • 8 Culture
    • 8.1 Arts
    • 8.2 Popular culture
    • 8.3 Festivals
    • 8.4 Cuisine
    • 8.5 Sports
  • 9 Education
  • 10 Healthcare
  • 11 See also
  • 12 Notes
  • 13 References
  • 14 External links
Names

The English name Egypt is derived from the ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, , and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبة qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".

Miṣr (IPA: ) is the Literary Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr (IPA: ) is the common pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim), literally meaning "the two straits" (a reference to the dynastic separation of upper and lower Egypt). The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and means "country", or "frontier-land".

The ancient Egyptian name of the country is Kemet (km.t) ⟨




See All 11 items matching Egypt in Media Gallery

A sketch showing Achaemenid Shah Cambyses capturing Pelusium in 525BC using cats from the book Greatest Nations : Greece published in the early years of the twentieth century contains ten volumes, and covers most of the major countries of world history.
Cairo Dec, 2009: Iranian Politician Ali Larijani as head of the parliament meets President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt. Good times for dictator ended finally: Mubarak, accused of corruption and involvement in killing protesters, went on trial on ug, 3, 2011.
Artifacts found in Egypt in 2009 by two Italian archeologists allegedly belonging to the lost army of Achaemenid king Cambyses who disappeared after walking into the an oasis in a desert in Egypt. For political reasons the findings were not authenticated.
An Achaemenid Seal showing king Cambyses of Persia defeating Egyptian Paroah Psamtik III in 525 B.C. Psamtik was defeated at Pelusium, and fled to Memphis where he was captured. Cambyses was severely injured and died in March, 522 BC.
Ancient Egypt Map Herodotus: an Inscription by Achaemenid king Dariush the Great describes construction of a Canal connecting the Red Sea to Nile River in Egypt around 520 B.C..
Pahlavi Prince Mohammad Reza with his future wife Princess Fouziyeh of Egypt and his mother-in-law Nazli on a trip in Egypt. On March 15, 1939 their wedding ceremony took place in Abdin Palace in Cairo.

See also items containing :Egypt

Related History Articles:

Add definition or comments on Egypt

Your Name / Alias:
E-mail:
Definition / Comments
neutral points of view
Source / SEO Backlink:
Anti-Spam Check
Enter text above
Upon approval, your definition will be listed under: Egypt





Happy Norooz 1393

Home About us / Contact    Products    Services    Iranian History Today    Top Iran Links    Iranian B2B Web Directory    Historical Glossary
Copyright @ 2004-2013 fouman.com All Rights Iranian