The Iranian History Era :

Parthian Empire (247 BC - 226 AD)

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October, 1, 243 B.C.:
Ptolemy 3. Retreats From Susa


Ptolemy 3 Euergetes conquered Babylon and Susa in 245 B.C. He had defeated the ruler of the Seleucid dynasty in the Third Syrian War (245-241) Meanwhile, Parthians under Tirdad were regaining strength and defeated Ptolemy's forces east of Susa. Parthians were causing heavy damages on Seleucids in No... Read Full Article:


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March, 1, 173 B.C.:
First Constitutional Monarchy In Iran


The sixth Parthian king Mehrdad I ordered codification of a general constitution against which all citizens were to know their rights and responsibilities. Thereafter two parliaments were created that together formed the Iranian senate or Mehestan. Among duties of Mehestan were choosing the crown pr... Read Full Article:


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June, 5, 154 B.C.:
Mehrdad I Captures Babylon


Mehrdad I succeeded his brother Farhad I and turned Parthia into a major political power. He drove back the Seleucid rulers from Bactria, Persia, Media, and Mesopotamia city after city. He gained control of the royal road built during the Achaemenid and established trade along the silk road that was... Read Full Article:


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October, 24, 90 B.C.:
Execution Of Ambassador By Mehrdad 2


The Iranian ambassador to the Roman court Arorobazus was condemned to death by the court. After the Parthian king Mehrdad 2 approved the decree, the public execution took place in the Tisfun city square to depict the importance of Iranian dignity. Arorobazus had reportedly sat in a lower seat than h... Read Full Article:


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April, 11, 80 B.C.:
Orodes The King Of Kings


The history of the Parthian kings are very obscure especially during this period but Ardoan I is mentioned as Shahanshah of the Arsacid dynasty in a report of lunar eclipse in April, 11, 80 B.C in Babylon. Although his rule that had started in 90 B.C. must have ended after ten years in 80 B.C. Part ... Read Full Article:


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January, 27, 70 B.C.:
Farhad 3.Ascends The Throne


Farhad 3rd ascends the Parthian throne as the 17th ruler of the Parthian Dynasty. His reign lasted for about seven years. Farhad 3rd AKA Phraates III was the son of Sinatruces. He was somehow a cheater because of his coins were polished with gold dust, so that people from other countries considered ... Read Full Article:


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October, 6, 69 B.C.:
Parthia Supports Tigranes Against Tigranes


Tigranes the great of Armenia was caught off guard during the battle of Tigranocerta when the Roman Lucullus bribed the guards. These infidel guards opened the city gates on Oct, 10, 69 B.C. thus Tigranes lost the battle. He reached Farhad 3 of Parthia for support against Romans but Farhad preferred... Read Full Article:


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March, 3, 52 B.C.:
Roman Senate Discusses Carrhae Defeat


Excerpts from an assembly at the Roman senate on March, 3, discussing the reasons for which Romans lost in the Battle of Carrhae 9 months earlier: Lieutenant Surena used new arms and tactics in this war Each Iranian soldier carried some water and did not become thirsty like Roman soldiers did. Camel... Read Full Article:


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March, 15, 44 B.C.:
Caesars Assassination Relieves Iranians


7 days to Norooz celebrations, the news of Caesar's assassination in the Senate relieved Iranians because they were preparing for an attack from Caesar's army as a revenge for the defeat 7 years earlier when general Surena had crushed Roman army leaded by Crassus in the famous Battle of Carrhae.... Read Full Article:


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August, 8, 40 B.C.:
Iran Takes Syria Back From Romans


After crushing the Roman army, Iran took back Syria. The Iranian army then proceeded and liberated Palestine. After the Roman senate declared war on Iran, it took 3 years to find legionaries from all over the Roman realm including today's West Europe, Spain, North Africa, Greece and Yugoslavia.Befor... Read Full Article:


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June, 2, 36 B.C.:
Ord 2. Descends The Parthian Throne


Shortly after his son Pacor was kille during Iranian wars in West Asia, Ord 2. voluntarily descended the Parthian throne and appointed Farhad 4. as his successor.Ord 2. ruled the Parthian Empire from 56 B.C. after defeating his elder brother and succeeded Mehrdad 3. The Parthian Empire reached its z... Read Full Article:


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April, 1, 2 B.C.:
Farhad 4 Murdered


Farhad IV of Parthia was poisoned by his Italian wife Thermusa and her younger son. Farhad IV ascended the throne in 37 B.C. after his brother's death. He then killed his father and 30 of his brothers, seen as rivals. In 36 B.C. the Roman general Marc Anthony invaded Parthia but he was defeated in A... Read Full Article:


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April, 20, 9 A.D.:
Artabanus 3. Becomes King


The Iranian senate Mehestan elected Artabanus 3 who was relative to Ashk I by his mother as the new king. During Parthian dynasty, Kingdom was not necessary inherited and the senate which was comprised of influential noblemen could elect the king. Still it was a custom to choose the crown prince dur... Read Full Article:


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September, 12, 51 A.D.:
Vonones 2.Becomes King Of Parthia


Goodarz 2 was the 20th Parthian king who reigned from 40 A.D. for eleven years. After the death of his father King Artabanus 2, Goodarz had to fight the first five years of his reign with his brother Vardanes who had also issued coins of his own. They fought indecisive battles several times and it s... Read Full Article:


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April, 5, 52 A.D.:
Balash Was Elected King


Balash was elected king from among many rival princes by Mehestan. Balash chose his brother Tirdad as the king of Armenia. This action angered the Romans starting a war that lasted for almost 8 years but fortunately ended in a peace treaty. Tirdad who was a clever and brave politician met Nero in pe... Read Full Article:


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October, 19, 66 A.D.:
Tirdad Visits Rome


Tirdad was a Persian prince assigned as the ruler of Armenia that had angered the Romans leading to an 8 year long war. On this day, Tirdad enters Rome during a special ceremony to meet Nero. Tacitus, the Roman historian explains the event in detail. It was reportedly a very glorious ceremony to sho... Read Full Article:


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July, 30, 77 A.D.:
Balash I Dies


Balash I, the wise Parthian king died on July, 30, 77 A.D. after 25 years of reign. One year before his death, Balash had ordered collection and compilation of Avesta. After him, Ardeshir Babakan ordered continuation and completed work on Avesta. However, the original Avesta is a dynamic product of ... Read Full Article:


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August, 13, 94 A.D.:
China Becomes Iran's Neighbor


Chinese forces leaded by Banchao completed their conquest of Transoxiana and became Iran's new neighbor. This area used to be a part of Sogdiana, an Achaemenid Satrapy. Transoxiana's major cultural centers are historical Samarkand and Bukhara which preserved Iranian culture and civilization after th... Read Full Article:


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February, 14, 102 A.D.:
Defeat of Chinese Forces In Transoxiana


The Chinese Khaghan Vadi sent 40,000 units to Transoxiana knowing that Iranians were busy fighting the Romans. The invasion was encountered by local forces of Parthia, Ariana and Kohestan and the Chinese army was crushed with many taken captive. The Chinese leaders sent their apologies and said that... Read Full Article:


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August, 11, 117 A.D.:
Hadrianus Makes Peace With Iran


After years of intrigue, Hadrianus was adopted and named successor just before Trajan's death. Three days after becoming the new Roman emperor, Hadrianus surrendered Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia, considering them to be indefensible. He executed his senatorial opponents, abandoned Trajan's conqu... Read Full Article:


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July, 26, 199 A.D.:
Khazars Pushed Back North Of Darband


The Khazars were gradually invading the coastal areas by the Caspian Sea while Iran was under threat by the Roman emperor Severus forces. Romans often used Khazar mercenaries to attack Iran. Balash 5 set his priority to clear the region from Khazars who were jeopardizing settlements and their presen... Read Full Article:


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April, 14, 216 A.D.:
Prophet Mani Is Born


Mani was born to become the first prophet to preach equality of mankind. He had his first vision of an angel in his boyhood, and when he was 24 the angel reappeared and called him to preach the new religion : Manichaeism. He traveled to India and made converts there. The Persian king Shapour I permi... Read Full Article:


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April, 8, 217 A.D.:
Roman Caracalla Assassinated In Carrhae


Near the end of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), Artabanus IV was at war with his brother Vologases VI who ruled in Babylon. The Parthian Empire also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran better known as ancient Persia.The Roman emperor... Read Full Article:


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April, 28, 224 A.D.:
Ardeshir Defeats Parthian King


Ardeshir revolted against Parthian kingdom in 223. Ardoan 5 asked the king of Khuzestan to stop him. Ardeshir however took most of southern Iran by surprise and installed his own rulers in Kerman, Persis, Mesene and Susiana. Then he defeated Artabanus V's army on April, 28, 224 at Hormozgan. Before ... Read Full Article:


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June, 11, 226 A.D.:
Eternal Fire Decorates Coins Of Iran


Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty announced a golden coin bearing the embossed image of the Eternal Fire in a cup standing on a pedestal as the official coin of Iran. He began minting those coins in 224 in Persis.The Eternal Fire which is an important symbol of Zoroastrian religi... Read Full Article:


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September, 26, 226 A.D.:
Beginning Of The Sassanid Dynasty


According to some historians, Sassanid dynasty begins on this date with Ardeshir I (226-241) when he enters Tisfun and ends with death of Yazdgerd 3 in 652. Sassan means keeper of the fire in Estakhr's Anahita temple. According to the legend, Sassan was a nobleman from Indian or Achaemenid descent w... Read Full Article:


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October, 3, 226 A.D.:
Ardeshir Marries Mitra


Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sassanid Empire who had just proclaimed Shahanshah married Mitra the daughter of Vologases V who was succeeded by his son Vologases VI, but another son Artabanus IV rebelled. Ardeshir I defeated Artabanus IV in 226 and conquered the eastern provinces of Parthia. ... Read Full Article:

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