The Iranian History Era :

Achaemenid Empire (550 - 331) BC

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July, 25, 539 B.C.:
The Battle of Opis


The armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus engaged at the Battle of Opis, fought on Sep, 25, 539 BC.At the time, Babylonia was the last major power in western Asia that was not yet under Persian control. The battle was fought near the strategic riverside... Read Full Article:


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September, 30, 539 B.C.:
Cyrus The Great Enters Babylon


The Achaemenid king, and the founder of Iran, Cyrus The Great became king in 559 B.C. Born in 585 B.C., he was a nobleman in all ways. His father was Cambyses son of Cyrus and his great grand fathers were all Persian kings generation after generation. His mother Mandana was the daughter of Astyages ... Read Full Article:


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October, 29, 539 B.C.:
World Cyrus Day


Oct, 29 is the world Cyrus day celebrated worldwide. Babylon's seizure completed on this day. Supporters of human rights cherish this day to mark the famous Cylinder of Cyrus which is known to be the first chapter of human rights in the world history, now kept in the British museum. Cyrus The Great ... Read Full Article:


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November, 4, 539 B.C.:
Cyrus Builds Babylon City Walls


Cyrus The Great started a manner just the opposite of other conquerers who burnt and destroyed conquered cities. He brought peace and security to the societies and that was the reason why citizens of Babylon had asked for his help to get rid of the oppressive king Nabonidus. Cyrus personally took sh... Read Full Article:


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March, 27, 538 B.C.:
Cambyses Attends Akitu Festival


The Chronicle of Nabonidus, states:that prince Cambyses, son of Cyrus The Great attended the Akitu festival which was an important ceremony for Babylonians. Nabonidus had lost popularity because of not attending the religious ceremony and Cyrus himself was not able to attend it. So he appointed Camb... Read Full Article:


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March, 4, 530 B.C.:
Cyrus The Great Killed In Battlefield


Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty was killed in battlefield from a wound inflicted from a poisonous arrow during a campaign against the Massagetes in Central Asia. He is considered one of the most respected world leaders to date. What characteristics made him a great leader? He ... Read Full Article:


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August, 31, 530 B.C.:
Cambyses Becomes King And Takes Egypt


Before Cyrus the Great fell in a battle against nomadic Massagetes in March, 530, he had appointed Cambyses as the Crown Prince. Cambyses accompanied his father during the battle. The first official document related to the reign of Cambyses was dated August, 31, 530 B.C. Cambyses married Phaedymia t... Read Full Article:


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March, 11, 522 B.C.:
Gaumata Revolts Or Was He Bardia?


Cambyses had a reign full of speculations. Some historians say he married his own sister Atoosa, assassinated his own brother Bardia, killed the sacred Apis bull of Egypt, burnt the body of Amasis 2, and committed suicide in 522 BC; to this account he was mentally sick. On the other hand it's certai... Read Full Article:


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July, 1, 522 B.C.:
Smerdis Proclaims King


When Cambyses was conquering Egypt, someone calling himself Smerdis claiming to be his brother rebelled and proclaimed king. His rule started on March, 11 and on July, 1st he formally became king. He was killed however by Dariush in Sikayauvati in Media on Sep, 29. One possible cause Smerdis quickly... Read Full Article:


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September, 29, 522 B.C.:
The Coup Against Gaumata


Dariush, the son of Hystaspes together with six noblemen; Otanes, Gobryas, Intaphrenes, Hydarnes, Megabyzus, and Ardumanis entered the palace and according to a sophisticated plan they had made, they succeeded in a coup against Gaumata and assassinated him. They charged that Gaumata who claimed to b... Read Full Article:


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October, 3, 522 B.C.:
Nebuchadnezzar 2. Proclaims King


Nidintu-Bel proclaimed king of Babylon. Claiming to be the son of Nabonidus, the last king before Babylon lost its independence, and called himself Nebu Chadnezzar 3. This happened right after Dariush suppressed a serious uprising by Gaumata. Without hesitation, Dariush advanced to Babylon with his ... Read Full Article:


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December, 13, 522 B.C.:
Dariush Defeats Nidintu-Bel


Nidintu-Bel claimed to be Nebu Chadnezzar son of Nabonidus. Nebu Chadnezzar 3's name was first mentioned in a letter written in Oct, 3, 522 only 4 days after Gaumata was killed. The empire was in a chaos. To suppress this rebellion Dariush himself leaded an army using the advantage of having a full-... Read Full Article:


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December, 29, 522 B.C.:
Vivana Breaks The Siege In Kapisa


Vivana was the Persian Satrap of Arachosia appointed by King Cambyses. Arachosia was a prosperous Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire along the Tarnak River on the road to the Indus valley. During the rebels after the death of Cambyses, a usurper named Smerdis seized power in Achaemenid Empire. Vivana... Read Full Article:


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December, 31, 522 B.C.:
Vaumisa Suppressed Armenian Rebellion


After Dariush proclaimed king, revolts began in every corner of the Persian Empire; the most important of which was the revolt of Median king Phraortes whose rebellion spread to Parthia and Armenia. Persian general Vaumisa was appointed as the commander of one of the two armies to suppress the Armen... Read Full Article:


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January, 12, 521 B.C.:
Hydarnes Wins A Victory At Maru


Dariush the Great became king of the Achaemenid Empire in great turmoil. Nearly all Satrapies revolted. It was strategically crucial to prevent Median rebel Phraortes from contacting Vahyazdata another rebel who controlled Persia. It was winter and a group of Achaemenid soldiers headed by Hydarnes h... Read Full Article:


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March, 8, 521 B.C.:
Hystaspes Defeats Parthian rebels


The army of Dariush the Great was made up of Median troops, thus they were not likely to attack their homeland. This was to the advantage of Phraortes the Parthian rebel king, who had captured the important city of Ecbatana in Dec, 522 B.C. The rebellion spread to the north to Armenia, to the west t... Read Full Article:


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May, 8, 521 B.C.:
Median Rebellion Suppressed By Dariush


When Cyrus the Great overthrew the Median empire in 550 BC, he captured Ecbatana (today's Hamedan). Ecbatana became the summer residence of the Achaemenid kings. 28 years later in December 522, the Median rebel Phraortes who descended from Cyaxares, and gained support in Sagartia, Parthia and Hyrcan... Read Full Article:


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May, 24, 521 B.C.:
The Battle of Raxa


After the false king Smerdis was put to death by Dariush, another Persian usurper named Vahyazdata proclaimed himself the real heir of the Achaemenid throne and to be the real Smerdis. He seized the Persian Pasargadae palace and was able to conquer Arachosia. Dariush was busy with other rebels at th... Read Full Article:


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July, 11, 521 B.C.:
Hystaspes Defeats Median Uprising


While Dariush was fighting Phraortes in Rhagae, his father Hystaspes was fighting Median rebels in Parthia but his forces were not enough. Then Dariush sent him a Persian army from Rhagae and as soon as the army arrives Hystaspes attacks the rebels and after two battles takes control back. Dariush i... Read Full Article:


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July, 15, 521 B.C.:
Vahyazdata Of Persia Arrested


On March, 8th. Vivana in Arachosia defeated an army sent by Vahyazdata and the Satrap of Bactria Dadarshi stayed loyal to Dariush. In summer, all resistances against Dariush were being suppressed one after another. The Parthians were now trapped between Hystaspes and Dadarshi from the east and the a... Read Full Article:


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August, 25, 521 B.C.:
Arakha Revolts In Babylon


Arakha claimed to be the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon, proclaimed king on Aug, 25, 521 as Nebu Chadnezzar IV. He was indeed son of Haldita, an Armenian, living in Babylon. Dariush's bow carrier Intaphrenes was sent to suppress the revolt. According to the Behistun Inscription which pro... Read Full Article:


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November, 27, 521 B.C.:
Intaphrenes Takes Back Babylon


Intaphrenes who was one of the noblemen that assisted Dariush in ascending to the throne was sent with an army to Babylon to suppress the uprising started on August, 25 leaded by Arkha, the son of an Armenian named Haldita Arkha claimed to be Nebu Chadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus, last king of the ... Read Full Article:


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December, 28, 521 B.C.:
Last Revolt Against Dariush Silenced


A rebel leader in Margiana named Frada was the last one to be taken care of in a series of revolts against Dariush the Great. Because Margiana was not a very important part of the Achaemenid Empire, no action was undertaken until the end of the spring of 521 when the Medes had been defeated. In July... Read Full Article:


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November, 9, 518 B.C.:
New Apis Found For Egyptians


After Dariush suppressed the revolts in each corner of the vast Persian Empire, he visited the Satrapy of Egypt in September 518 B.C. Aryandes was appointed as Satrap of Egypt by Cambyses and had served for more than four years. Aryandes had just restored order in Egypt before king Dariush arrived. ... Read Full Article:


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April, 1, 515 B.C.:
Temple Of The Jews Inaugurated


After liberation of Babylon, Jews who had been enslaved and displaced from Jerusalem were freed. The policy of tolerance and understanding towards religious beliefs was very remarkable during the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus The Great ordered payment of necessary funds to the Jews to rebuild their Temp... Read Full Article:


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September, 24, 514 B.C.:
Persian Army Passes Bosphorus


Units of Persian army passed the strait of Bosphorus near the area where Constantinople was built later. The expedition aimed to drive back Scythians from across the Danube river. Scythians were Arians who migrated from Central Asia. Some of them settled in Sekestan, the rest moved to southern Russi... Read Full Article:


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July, 13, 513 B.C.:
Persians Enter Europe


The Iranian army headed by General Bogoas defeated the Getae confederation forces south of Danube river. This victory that added the east Balkan to the Achaemenid realm was historically the first time an eastern empire advanced so deep towards West. The Persian army which consisted of 80,000 units c... Read Full Article:


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October, 20, 494 B.C.:
Ionian Greeks Defeated Off Lade


In summer of 498, Sardes, the capital of the Satrapy of Lydia, was destroyed by revolting Ionian Greeks. Datis, the same Median general who commanded the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, received special rations to make a tour of duty and suppress the Ionian revolt. He commanded a naval action that con... Read Full Article:


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August, 7, 490 B.C.:
Persians Land At Marathon


Dariush had sent two of his generals Artaphernes and Datis on an expedition to add the Aegean islands to the empire and thus preventing Ionians which had revolted in 499 from contacting their Greek motherland. Naxos was added to the empire and the Persian army seized Delos almost immediately and on ... Read Full Article:


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August, 12, 490 B.C.:
Persians Leave Marathon


The Iranian expeditionary force, leaded by Datis and Artaphernes first gathered on Cilicia in the spring of 490 BC. They sailed to Samos and then to Naxos. where the Naxians fled to the mountains. They sailed across the Cyclades islands and then for Carystus on the south coast of Euboea, which quick... Read Full Article:


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July, 4, 489 B.C.:
Egypt Becomes An Iranian Province


Dariush the great added Egypt to the Persian realm as one of Persia's 30 provinces or Satrap. Like other provinces his inscription is still available in Egypt. The world's first postal services were founded at his time to facilitate communication among diverse points within the vast Persian empire. ... Read Full Article:


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December, 1, 486 B.C.:
Xerxes Becomes The Successor Of Dariush


Dariush the great died in November 486 B.C at the age of 64. The last letter that was found indicating his reign was written on Nov, 17th. He was buried in Naghsh Rostam in a tomb that was prepared before his death in 493. Dariush had 12 sons and six daughters. But Xerxes, the oldest son of his firs... Read Full Article:


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August, 10, 480 B.C.:
Spartans Crushed At Thermopylae


After 3 days of intensive fight at a narrow pass along the coast called Thermopylae, Iranian mountain troops leaded by Hydarnes composed of 1,000 units succeeded to bypass the passage and showed up on the rear of the Spartans. The Persians, leaded by Xerxes I were easily able to outflank them. The ... Read Full Article:


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August, 11, 480 B.C.:
Naval Battle Of Artemisium


The naval battle of Artemisium took place between a Greek alliance and Iranians while the battle at Thermopylae was still being fought. Euribiades, the Spartan commander decided to attack the Iranian navy with 127 triremes thinking that this would stop the food supply to the Iranian army which was p... Read Full Article:


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September, 27, 480 B.C.:
The Battle Of Salamis


After taking care of the revolts in Egypt and Babylon, Xerxes turned towards Greece which was interfering in the areas in Persian realm using a hit and run tactic. Xerxes deployed a great army accompanied by a fleet of naval forces to Greece and soon after crushing a resistance in Thermopylae entere... Read Full Article:


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September, 27, 480 B.C.:
Persians Capture Athens


King Dariush the Great was preparing for an expedition to Greece before he died in November 486. His son Xerxes succeeded him and as soon as he suppressed rebellions in Egypt and Babylon, a large army of 600,000 was gathered at Sardes to start an expedition towards west. After victories in Artemisiu... Read Full Article:


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October, 19, 480 B.C.:
Xerxes' Alliance With Carthage


Xerxes signs an alliance with Carthage in order to create a barrier against the Greek and keep them busy in far away battles. The Anatolian cities of Iran were frequently invaded by the Greek and it was risky to deploy armies to this area besides high costs. This treaty lasted for 70 years until 410... Read Full Article:


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February, 4, 479 B.C.:
Xerxes Pardons Jews For Esther


A hero to one nation may well be a sucker to another; and that's the case for Alexander the Great. After the battle of Gaugamela, Dariush 3d retreated to Ecbatana on Oct, 4, 331 B.C. to re-arrange a new army. However uprisings started all over the kingdom. Alexander conquered Babylon and Susa easily... Read Full Article:


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August, 27, 479 B.C.:
The Battle Of Mycale


After an alliance between Greeks and Spartans, many Ionian cities began revolting. Sacking of Athens was marked as "mission accomplished" as punishment for Greeks, but Xerxes rushed back to deal with revolts in Egypt and Babylon leaving behind his general Mardonius in charge. There was not a clear s... Read Full Article:


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After Athens was captured, Xerxes was assured of a decisive victory and retreated to deal with an uprising in Babylon. He left general Mardonius in charge of occupied territories. Although Mardonius was a great general, he was weak in terms of politics and could not restore the order for a long time... Read Full Article:


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October, 21, 479 B.C.:
The Battle Of Amos


Only a year after the battle of Salamis which ended with great damage, the Iranian navy entrapped three rows of Greek battleships in the Cape of Mikail near the Amos Island and destroyed all units while taking some of the Greek officers captive in order to be interrogated on their tactics. This even... Read Full Article:


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April, 23, 478 B.C.:
The Delos Alliance


The leaders of Athens and the Greek Islands sign an alliance treaty to form a united front against the only super power of the time; namely the Persian Empire. The treaty was named after the Delos island as it was the place where gold and silver to cover the expenses was collected from member states... Read Full Article:


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April, 16, 465 B.C.:
Perspolis Becomes First Capital


It took 51 years to build Perspolis following an order by Dariush I. Perspolis became one of the greatest masterpieces of the antiquities at the peak of Persian Empire which had two more capitals in Susa and Ecbatana used for official and summer times respectively. The Persian Empire with more than ... Read Full Article:


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August, 8, 465 B.C.:
Artaxerxes I Makrocheir Becomes King


After Xerxes was killed, his son Artaxerxes I Makrocheir from his wife Amestris ascends the throne. During his Xerxes' reign, the expansion of the empire came to an end. Gandara and Taxila in the far east were lost. Still, the Persian empire remained the strongest power on earth with strong cultural... Read Full Article:


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May, 4, 454 B.C.:
Greeks Banned From Entering Egypt


The Iranian governor of Egypt issued an order written in three languages according to which all Greek nationals were banned from entering Egypt. Egypt was a province of Iran for 121 years. The reason for issuing such an order was that the Greek constantly provoked Egyptians for uprising and a recent... Read Full Article:


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October, 25, 449 B.C.:
Callias Teaty Ends Greco Persian Wars


After a series of battles between Persians and Greeks that lasted for almost half a century, an Athenian statesman named Callias was sent to Susa to offer peace in.449 B.C. King Artaxerxes I approved the terms and the Callias Peace Treaty was signed between Greece and Iran. According to this treaty,... Read Full Article:


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January, 10, 423 B.C.:
Dariush 2. Becomes King


After the death of Artaxerxes 1 in 424 B.C., three of his sons declared themselves king. One of them was Sogdianus, the son of Artaxerxes and a Babylonian woman named Alogyne. The other called himself Xerxes 2nd, son of Queen Damaspia who died the same day as her husband Artaxerxes. When Ochus, the ... Read Full Article:


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March, 21, 416 B.C.:
Special Gold Coins For Norooz


Iranians have been celebrating Norooz for more than 3000 years, making Norooz the oldest national ceremony in the world. On this occasion Dariush 2 issues gold coins that shows a soldier with a bow and arrow. Mintage or making coins from gold and silver had been started 100 years before that at the ... Read Full Article:


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April, 3, 404 B.C.:
Artaxerxes 2. Becomes King


After death of Dariush 2 Nothus, his son Ashk from queen Parysatis became the new king. His throne name was Artaxerxes 2 Mnemon. But his accession to the throne was not easy as civil war began and Artaxerxes' brother Cyrus the younger revolted but was defeated at Cunaxa near Babylon. Amyrtaeus revol... Read Full Article:


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October, 5, 401 B.C.:
Battle Of Cunaxa


Cyrus the Younger decided to revolt against his brother Artaxerxes 2 Mnemon. Cyrus was Satrap of Lydia, Cappadocia and Phrygia and chief commander of Asia Minor. It's possible that queen Parysatis was behind this event. On Oct, 5, 401 BC, Cyrus reached Cunaxa 70 km north of Babylon with some 30,000 ... Read Full Article:


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June, 6, 344 B.C.:
Cyprus Revolt Suppressed


Artaxerxes 2 of Achaemenid empire suppressed the revolt in Cyprus which used to be a naval base for the Iranian army for two centuries. In a treaty made in 386 B.C., Athens officially acknowledged Iran's rule over Cyprus as the world's single superpower of the time and guaranteed not to meddle in it... Read Full Article:


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July, 6, 343 B.C.:
Second Persian Occupation Of Egypt


Nakhthorhebe gave sacrifices to gods on this full moon night to help him in the war with Artaxerxes 3 Ochus. The Persian king was determined to get back Egypt after 60 years and finally succeeded by help from Bagoas and Mentor of Rhodes. However, he disrespected Egyptian religion and traditions; kil... Read Full Article:


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May, 23, 334 B.C.:
The Battle Of Granicus


The battle of Granicus took place near the Hellespontine at the crossing of the Granicus River between forces of invading Macedonian Alexander and the Persian Satrapy of Phrygia General Arsames. The Iranian generals did not take the attack seriously and confronted the Macedonian army with 15000 cava... Read Full Article:


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November, 6, 333 B.C.:
The Battle of Issus


When the forces of Alexander and his general Parmenion joined at Pillar of Jonah, Dariush 3rd forces were on their back passing the Armenian gate. The two armies clashed on the coastal plain. When Alexander charged his cavalry from the right, he could easily pass the Persian army barrier from behind... Read Full Article:


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September, 3, 331 B.C.:
Alexander Reaches Tigris


While Dariush 3 was preparing for the battle in Gaugamela, Alexander and his forces after allowing his men to rest near Carrhae reached Tigris. Meanwhile Mazaeus' army joined forces with Dariush 3 and was sent on ahead to demolish the crop and food resources to make it inconvenient for Alexander, th... Read Full Article:


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October, 1, 331 B.C.:
Battle Of Gaugamela Lost To Alexander


Alexander had set spies all over Persia. After the eclipse of the moon was visible on Sep, 20 morals were low on the Persian side as it was considered a sign of defeat. Now there was a superstitious air created that noticed a meteor flash on Sep, 23 which was considered another bad luck for Persians... Read Full Article:


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January, 20, 330 B.C.:
Battle at the Persian Gate


The Battle of the Persian Gate was a military conflict between the Achaemenid Empire and Macedonian Alexander at the Persian Gate. It's been narrated by Callisthenes who kept Alexander's diary that on this day, the army of Alexander that consisted of tens of thousands of soldiers could not proceed a... Read Full Article:


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February, 4, 330 B.C.:
Perspolis Turns Into Ashes


A hero to one nation may well be a sucker to another; and that's the case for Alexander the Great. After the battle of Gaugamela Dariush 3 retreated to Ecbatana on Oct, 4, 331 B.C. to rearrange a new army. However uprisings started all over the kingdom. Alexander conquers Babylon and Susa easily and... Read Full Article:


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May, 19, 330 B.C.:
Rhagae Falls After 3 Days Of Resistance


After the Gaugamela battle, the defeated Iranian army started retreating till they reached Rhagae. Despite having no leader and no supplies, starting from May, 16th, with the help of local citizens, a bloody battle continued street by street. While Rhagae citadel was being defended by local resident... Read Full Article:


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June, 28, 330 B.C.:
Greeks Adopt Achaemenid Calendars


While cities of the Achaemenid Empire were being captured one after another by Macedonian Alexander, among many booties recovered from the Persian civilization, Iranian achievements in science and technology were quickly adopted by the Greeks. It is important to note that even a simple innovation su... Read Full Article:

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