By: Mir M.Hosseini
Morteza Gholi Khan commonly known as Sanioddoleh, the first Majlis Speaker was assassinated in Tehran on Feb, 3, 1911. He was born in Tehran in 1856. After finishing higher education in Germany, he returned to Iran and was appointed as the head of the Post and Customs office. He was the founder of the first yarn factory in Iran and was a pioneer in supporting construction of a railroad. He was appointed minister several times before becoming the head of the first Iranian parliament. He was married to Princess Ehteramossaltaneh, the daughter of Mozaffaroddin Shah and was a very influential figure as a nobleman in the Iranian political scene.
On Feb, 3, 1911, he was shot by two Russian nationals at the Mokhberoddoleh crossroad. Ironically enough, Sanioddoleh was the son of Mokhberoddoleh. The assassins were arrested by the police but the Iranian government was asked to handle them to the Russian embassy according to an imposed treaty signed in Saint Petersburg. At the time, both Russia and Britain had troops in Iran and the Qajar ruling was not considered a sovereign state. Both states were able to do as they wished in Iran.
The decree for the Constitutional Monarchy had been issued by Mozaffaroddin Shah on Aug, 5, 1906. Following several assemblies among groups of people including clerics, ministers, noblemen, royal family members, and foreign ambassadors, Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh was elected as the first head of the first Iranian parliament on Oct, 8, 1906 which consisted of 156 representatives. Motives for the assassination of Sanioddoleh remain unclear as the faith of the assassins remains a mystery to-date.