By: Mir M.Hosseini
The uprising of Mahmoud Ghandahari which was provoked by India was the prelude to the downfall of the Safavid dynasty. While Sultan Hossein was entertaining in his harem, tribal Afghan forces could easily proceed towards west to the heart of the Persian empire with no resistance. The king marched against the invading army on March 8, but the royal army was defeated and fled back to Isfahan in disarray. Despite the fact that Mahmoud did not have an artillery, with his small army he laid siege to the capital hoping to starve citizens into submission. Although the siege lasted from March to October, no help arrived because of lack of popularity that drowned provinces into revolts. Secondly, the enemies such as Russia, India, and Ottomans were waiting for such an opportunity to invade Iranian territories which were scenes of revolts. Isfahan at the meantime was the scene of protests against Hossein's rule. His son, Tahmasp managed to escape before the fall of Isfahan on Oct, 12.
On Oct, 23 Hossein acknowledged Mahmoud as the new shah. Mahmoud who had an unbalanced personality started killing citizens specially those related to the Safavid throne but he kept Hossein alive. Mahmoud was showing all signs of insanity when he died on Oct, 25, 1725.