By: Mir M.Hosseini
The war of Saveh took place between armies of Sultan Sanjar and his nephew Sultan Mahmoud from the Seljuk dynasty. Although the war was won by Sultan Sanjar, he pardoned Mahmoud and spared his life. Seljuks consisted of several Turkish dynasties ruling over a great part of western Asia including Persia, Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
Sultan Seljuk was the chief of a nomadic Turkish tribe. His grandsons Chaghri and Toghrol conquered realms in Iran. Alparslan and Malekshah expanded the empire to include all of Iran, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. Alparslan conquered the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert. The Seljuks adopted Persian culture, and under them the Persian language displaced Arabic literature. In 13th century, Seljuk empire became limited to Anatolia, which collapsed in a war against the Kharazm Shah dynasty in 1230 and was overrun by Mongols in 1243.