By: Mir M.Hosseini
Vivana was the Persian Satrap of Arachosia appointed by King Cambyses. Arachosia was a prosperous Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire along the Tarnak River on the road to the Indus valley.
During the rebels after the death of Cambyses, a usurper named Smerdis seized power in Achaemenid Empire. Vivana refused to submit to Smerdis who then appointed his own Satrap on the head of an army that besieged the citadel in Kapisa (Ghandahar) for several weeks. As soon as Dariush the Great seized power, he started sending additional supplies and forces to all parts of Achaemenid Empire. Therefore Vivana was able to break the siege and defeat the rebel army on Dec, 29, 522 B.C. but it was not a decisive victory for Vivana.
According to Dariush in the Behistun Inscription, the rebels re-assembled and went against Vivana to give him battle on Feb, 12, 521.In Gandutava the rebel army tasted a bitter defeat and Vahyazdata's commander lost 4.579 men. Then the rebel army commander fled with a few horsemen to a fortress, but there was no place for them to hide from the determined Vivana soldiers who tracked them on foot and killed them all.
In the Bisotoun Inscription, King Dariush says:
Vahyazdata, who called himself Smerdis, sent men to Arachosia against a Persian named Vivana, my servant, the satrap of Arachosia. He appointed a certain man to be their leader, and thus he spoke to him, saying: Go smite Vivana and the host which acknowledges king Dariush.
Then that army that Vahyazdata had sent marched against Vivana to give him battle. At a fortress called Kapisa they fought the battle. Ahouramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahouramazda my army utterly overthrew that rebel host. On the thirteenth day of the month Anamaka was the battle fought by them.