By: Mir M.Hosseini
According to some historians, Sassanid dynasty begins on this date with Ardeshir I (226-241) when he enters Tisfun and ends with death of Yazdgerd 3 in 652. Sassan means keeper of the fire in Estakhr's Anahita temple.
According to the legend, Sassan was a nobleman from Indian or Achaemenid descent who became king Babak's shepherd and later married his daughter giving birth to Ardeshir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty.
Ardeshir I was ruler of Estakhr, a vassal kingdom of the Parthian dynasty.
After Ardeshir extended his realm into Kerman to the east and Elam to the west, he defeated the Parthian ruler of Khuzestan in a battle. In 226 Artabanus V invaded Fars to defeat Ardeshir but he lost the first battle. The Parthians suffered a greater loss in the second battle. The final battle in Hormoz, near Bandar Abbas was decisive. In which the Parthian army was completely defeated and Artabanus was killed. Ardeshir and Artabanus fought in close combat on horseback. Ardeshir shot Artabanus through the heart while pretending to be escaping. This fighting technique was originally invented by the Parthians.
Artabanus IV marched against him in 224 and the two armies clashed at Hormozgan where Artabanus IV was killed. Ardeshir then defeated the disintegrating Parthian vassal states and finally brought the 480 year-old Parthian Empire to an end. His coronation in 226 as the Shahanshah marked the beginning of the Sassanid Empire.
The Sassanid dynasty ruled for four centuries until overthrown by the Caliphates in 651.