By: Mir M.Hosseini
The Ottoman Empire at the peak of its power arrived at the gates of Vienna and European countries fell one by one. Safavid Iran was also in conflict with the Ottomans over the disputed Mesopotamia now called Iraq. On Jan, 22, 1623, Shah Abbas received a formal letter from Pope Paul V in which he had offered all kinds of support including military aid to Iran for a war with Ottomans.
Communications were slow in ancient times, therefore when the reply letter reached Vatican Pope Paul V had already passed away (Jan, 28, 1621) and Papacy had passed to Gregory XV. The special envoy in his report expressed doubts about Iran entering a war for the sake of Europeans.
Instead Shah Abbas wanted Pope to stop Christian nations from invading the Persian Gulf. The mighty Kizilbash army of the Safavid Empire captured Baghdad on Jan, 25, 1623 AD.