(Wikipedia) - Iraq was the first to use ballistic missiles during the Iran–Iraq War, firing limited numbers of Frog-7 rockets at the towns of Dezful and Ahvaz. On 27 October 1982, Iraq launched its first Scud-Bs at Dezful killing 21 civilians and wounding 100. Scud strikes continued during the following years, intensifying sharply in 1985, with more than 100 missiles falling inside Iran.
On Dec, 19, 1982 the Iraqi army under Saddam Hussein attacked the city of Dezful from air, and used surface-to-surface Scud missiles; three of the missiles hit the residential area of the city. The death toll was high. 62 civilians were martyred, and 287 injured. 120 houses, 380 shops and a mosque was destroyed.
Once again on Feb. 11, 1984 Iraq attacked civilian targets in Dezful, triggering a new phase of the war. Iran responded on Feb. 12 by shelling seven Iraqi cities. After repeated incidents, Iran accepted an Iraqi ceasefire offer on Feb. 18. Both agreed to allow a U.N. mission to assess damage in civilian areas.
The volatile ceasefire did not last long and in late February offensives started again.
In 1988, the fighting along the border had reached a stalemate. In a conflict known as the war of the cities, an intensive use of Scud missiles lasted from 29 February to 20 April. The first rounds were fired by Iraq, when seven missiles landed in Tehran on February 29. In all, Iraq fired 189 missiles, of which 135 landed in Tehran, 23 in Qom, 22 in Isfahan, four in Tabriz, three in Shiraz and two in Karaj. During this episode, Iraq's missiles killed 2,000 Iranians, injured 6,000, and caused a quarter of Tehran's population of ten million to flee the city. The Iranian response included launching 75 to 77 Hwasong-5s, a North Korean Scud variant, at targets in Iraq, mostly in Baghdad. This silenced the Iraq missile rampage.
Although Iran insisted that the international community, specifically the UN should recognize Iraq as the invading country which started the war. For political reasons and commercial benefits, the world powers refrained from endorsing any resolution until 1991, three years after the end of the Iran-Iraq War and only after Iraq occupied Kuwait.
The war between Iran and Iraq which had continued for eight years had clearly started through breach of international law by Iraq, in a UN report on December 9, 1991 based on Resolution 598 which was adopted by the Security Council on July 20, 1987. UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar mentioned in his report that the attack against Iran on September 22, 1980 as the most prominent event which showed a breach of international law as specified in Paragraph 5 of his report. He added that aggression against Iran could not be justified on the basis of any principle or rule of international law or ethics.
During the Iran-Iraq War Western countries such as US, UK, France, and Persian Gulf Sheikhdoms financed Iraq and provided the Baath regime with weapons, logistics, intelligence and training. The western media generally reported the Iraqi side of the story during the war, and some countries such as Germany and Netherlands went as far as providing the crazy Iraqi leader with Chemical Weapons, and Saddam did not hesitate to use it against Iranian civilians in Sardasht on June, 28, 1987 , and even on his own people in Halapcha on March, 16, 1988.
Dutch arms dealer Frans van Anraat from his firm based in Bissone, Switzerland sold raw materials for the production of chemical weapons to Iraq during the reign of Saddam Hussein.
On December 23, 2005, Anraat was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for complicity in war crimes, but the court decided the charges of complicity in genocide could not be substantiated. Both the public prosecutor as well as Van Anraat appealed the verdict. In May 2007, the appeal court sentenced Van Anraat to seventeen years in prison, this time for complicity in multiple war crimes which explains the two extra years, but not for complicity in genocide. Shortly after the arrest of Van Anraat, several Dutch newspapers reported that Van Anraat had been an informant of the Dutch Secret Service, the AIVD. According to the Dutch press, Van Anraat received protection from the AIVD and was placed in a safehouse of the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations in Amsterdam.