(Wikipedia) - The British Embassy in Iran and another British diplomatic compound in Tehran were attacked on November, 29 2011 by a crowd of Iranian protesters who stormed the embassy establishments, ransacking offices and stealing documents. One small building was set on fire during the incident and several people were injured.
The United Kingdom is one of hostile countries with colonial attitudes towards Iran; imposing numerous sanctions with the pretext of being concerned about Iran's peaceful nuclear program ignoring the facts. The British government banned all financial institutions in the United Kingdom doing business with their counterparts in Iran, including Iran's central bank. Iran responded by approving a bill to downgrade its ties with the United Kingdom, including a requirement for both countries to withdraw their respective ambassadors. This was not the first time that Iran has called for downgrading ties with Britain.
About 1,000 people gathered near the embassy to demand that the British ambassador be sent home immediately. The rally began quietly, but some participants stormed the building, breaking down the door, throwing around papers and replacing the British flag with an Iranian one. The Iranian security forces initially did not intervene as protesters entered the British Embassy. Protesters removed the mission's flag and ransacked offices. The protesters chanted, "Death to USA", "Death to England" and "Death to Israel", among other slogans.
According to the British ambassador Dominick Chilcott, protesters rampaged through the embassy building, destroying paintings and furniture, spraying graffiti, smashing windows and starting fires. Seven embassy staffs were seized by protesters but were eventually escorted out by police. The protesters also stole mobile phones and computers.
British Prime Minister David Cameron described the incursion as "outrageous and indefensible" and demanded that Iran immediately ensure the safety of all British Embassy personnel. Foreign Secretary William Hague said the "irresponsible action" had put the safety of diplomats and their families at risk and caused extensive damage to embassy property. Some anti-UK students had gathered at the front of Gholhak Garden in the north of Tehran. They also pulled down a picture of the Queen and burned an embassy vehicle, as well as US, Israeli and UK flags. The protesters said they wanted to shut down the embassy. Gholhak Garden is a British diplomatic compound in northern Tehran whose ownership has been a source of contention between Iranian and UK officials. Iran expressed regret over the attacks and police arrested 12 protesters.
Iranian state media agencies and certain international news sources described the protests as a reaction of students against Britain's anti-Iran policies. The demonstrators themselves issued an official statement, declaring, "Our actions are a spontaneous reaction of revolutionary students and were not ordered by any state organ."
In a statement to the House of Commons on November, 30, Foreign Secretary William Hague said: "Iran is a country where Opposition leaders are under house arrest, more than 500 people have been executed so far this year and where genuine protest is ruthlessly stamped on. The idea that the Iranian authorities could not have protected our Embassy or that this assault could have taken place without some degree of regime consent is fanciful".
Some analysts, media sources and Iranian opposition groups assert that the attack was orchestrated by the Iranian authorities, hence the strong British reaction. Al Jazeera's correspondent in Tehran, Dorsa Jabbari, reported that the Iranian police and various ministries had prior knowledge of the protest, which was organized by the student arm of the Basij.
Police reportedly "stood back and let the protestors make their way into the compound". In the words of The Economist, "This was the centre of the capital city . . . If the police had wanted to stop this; they could have flooded the compound with officers and rescued the British. The police, and whoever was pulling the strings behind the attack, chose not to intervene for a long while."
Jabbari stated, "Any such action of this scale can never be independent in the Islamic Republic." Dominick Chilcott told the BBC, Iran is a country in which such action is only taken "with the acquiescence and the support of the state".
Iran's Foreign Ministry expressed regret over the attack, calling it "unacceptable" and said that it happened "despite the efforts made by the Iranian Law Enforcement Police and reinforcement of the embassy guards."
Two Iranian opposition student groups, Tahkim Vahdat and Advar Tahkim, issued statements criticizing the attack. Tahkim Vahdat said that those behind it were "not true representative of Iranian students; they were affiliated with the authorities in power."
Iran's Deputy Police Chief Brigadier General Ahmad Reza Radan announced that police have started investigations into the details of the Tuesday protests in which angry self-driven protesters raided and occupied the British embassy and its garden in Northern Tehran ;)
Following the incident, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office issued a statement saying that "we are outraged by this. It is utterly unacceptable and we condemn it." Later that evening David Cameron described the Iranian Government's failure to protect the embassy as a "disgrace". On 30 November 2011, during a speech to the House of Commons, Foreign Secretary William Hague announced that the Iranian Ambassador to the Court of St. James's, his ambassadorial staff and other Iranian diplomats had 48 hours to leave the United Kingdom. The foreign secretary also announced that he had closed the British Embassy, and its staff and dependants had left Tehran. This brought the United Kingdom's relations with Iran to their lowest level, and both the Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister had warned of far more "serious consequences" towards Iran, for its failure to uphold its international obligations in line with the Vienna Convention.
Iranian MP Parviz Sorouri a senior member of the Majlis National Security and Foreign Policy Committee said that "the British government’s hasty decision to close down the Iranian Embassy in London has created a new situation for both sides. But the Iranian government will do its utmost to stand up for the rights of Iranian citizens living in Britain through the establishment of an interests section in London."
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg told the BBC's Sarah Rainsford that the U.K.'s relationship with Iran had "taken a very serious knock" but that "It doesn't mean we're cutting off all diplomatic relations with Iran. It doesn't mean we are in any way lessening our determination to try to find a diplomatic solution to the nuclear question, which is immensely important to Europe and the whole world, and we will continue to work tirelessly to find a negotiated solution.".
The United Nations Security Council condemned the attacks "in the strongest terms" and United States Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton described them as an "affront" to the international community. US Vice President Joe Biden said he had no evidence the attack on the British embassy in Tehran was orchestrated by Iranian authorities, but it was another example of why the country was a "pariah."
Norway announced it closed its embassy in Tehran due to security concerns, after Britain's mission was stormed. Hilde Steinfeld, a Foreign Ministry spokeswoman in Oslo, said the decision to close the embassy was taken late Tuesday, but that Norway's diplomatic staff have not yet been evacuated and are still in Tehran.
Russia condemned the attack, stating that the actions were "unacceptable and deserve condemnation." China did not criticize Iran by name but stated that "the relevant action runs counter to international law and basic norms of international relations and should be handled appropriately."
Several countries, such as France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, recalled their ambassadors to discuss the diplomatic matter, with Austria stating they are considering a similar decision. While not recalling its own ambassador, Sweden summoned the Iranian Ambassador to the Swedish Foreign Ministry in protest. Germany offered to act as a protecting power for the United Kingdom's diplomatic duties in Iran.
Hungary refused to recall its Ambassador to Iran following a meeting of EU Foreign Ministers on December 1, saying it would cripple normal day-to-day operations due to its limited staff. However the Hungarian Government joined its European allies in condemning the incident.
Such unfortunate incidents in the contemporary Iranian history are usually instigated by rogue elements within the ranks of the regime that enjoy a certain level of immunity and they are sometimes supported by some high ranking clerics who operate independently from the mainstream policymaking system. They sometimes come up with bizarre statements and trigger sentiments that result in acts that hurt the country's image.