By: Mir M.Hosseini
Before Cyrus the Great fell in a battle against nomadic Massagetes in March, 530, he had appointed Cambyses as the Crown Prince. Cambyses accompanied his father during the battle. The first official document related to the reign of Cambyses was dated August, 31, 530 B.C. Cambyses married Phaedymia to secure the support of the nobility. After Pharaoh Amasis 2 heard that Cyrus died, he sought an opportunity to annex Syria. He appointed his son Psamtik 3 as the army leader.
Cambyses secretly killed his younger brother Bardia, the Satrap of Bactria before marching to Egypt to avoid any revolt in his absence. Amasis 2 died in 526 BC shortly before the Persians attacked. In the first encounter between the two armies, Iranians won the war. Hearing the news of his father's death Psamtik 3 retreated and set camp at Pelusium on the eastern entrance of Nile delta to avoid Persian army from entering Egypt but he was unsuccessful and fled to Memphis. After a long siege, Memphis was taken in the summer of 525.
Psamtik 3, whose reign lasted for 6 months, was captured alive and received a honorable treatment. He was sent to Susa but later, when he was trying to incite a revolt, he was arrested, and executed.
Cambyses is the founder of Iran's naval forces. The first fleet were mostly from Phoenicia and Asia Minor. Cyprus also joined Iran's naval expedition to Egypt. There was no naval conflict reported with Egyptians however, their Greek mercenaries joined the Persian fleet. By the end of summer, the whole Egypt was conquered and Cambyses was thus the founder of the 27th Egyptian dynasty.