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|Zand dynasty سلسله زندیه|
Coat of arms
|- 1750–1779||Karim Khan Zand (first)|
|- 1789–1794||Lotf Ali Khan Zand (last)|
|- Zand dynasty begins||1750|
|- Qajar dynasty begins||1794|
|Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE|
|Elam 2700–539 BCE|
|Mannaeans 850–616 BCE|
|Median Empire 678–550 BCE|
|(Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)|
|Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE|
|Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE|
|Parthian Empire 247 BCE–224 CE|
|Sassanid Empire 224–651|
|Umayyad Caliphate 661–750|
|Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258|
|Ziyarid Dynasty 928–1043||Saffarid Dynasty 867–1002|
|Buyid Dynasty 934–1055||Samanid Dynasty 875–999|
|Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186|
|Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194|
|Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231|
|Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335|
|Chobanid Dynasty 1335–1357||Muzaffarid Dynasty 1335–1393|
|Jalayirid Dynasty 1336–1432||Sarbadars 1337–1376|
|Timurid Empire 1370–1405|
|Qara Qoyunlu 1406–1468||Timurid Dynasty 1405–1507|
|Agh Qoyunlu 1468–1508|
|Safavid Empire 1501–1736|
|(Hotaki Dynasty 1722–1729)|
|Afsharid Empire 1736–1747|
|Zand Dynasty 1760–1794||Afsharid Dynasty 1747–1796|
|Qajar Empire 1796–1925|
|Pahlavi Dynasty 1925–1979|
|Interim Government 1979–1980|
|Islamic Republic 1980–present|
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The Zand dynasty ( Zand (help·info)) (Persian: سلسله زندیه), formally known as the Zandieh dynasty, ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century. The dynasty was of Iranian origin.
The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe, which is a tribe of the Kurdish people and is considered to be either Luri in origin. He became one of Nader Shah's generals. Nader Shah moved the Zand tribe from their home in Lakestan to the eastern steppes of Khorasan. After Nader’s death, the Zand tribe, under the guidance of Karim Khan, went back to their original land. After Adil Shah was made king Karim Khan and his soldiers defected from the army and along with Ali Morad Khan Bakhtiari and Abolfath Khan Haft Lang, two other local chiefs, became a major contender but was challenged by several adversaries. Abolfath Khan was the Prime Minister, Karim Khan became the army chief commander and Ali Morad Khan became the regent. Karim Khan declared Shiraz his capital. He gained control of central and southern parts of Iran. In order to add legitimacy to his claim, Karim Khan placed the infant Shah Ismail III, the grandson of the last Safavid king in 1757 on the throne. Ismail was a figurehead king and real power was vested in Karim Khan. Karim Khan chose to be the military commander and Alimardan Khan was the civil administrator. Soon enough Karim Khan managed to eliminate his partner as well as the puppet king and in 1760, founded his own dynasty. He refused to accept the title of the king and instead named himself The Advocate of the People.
By 1760, Karim Khan had defeated all his rivals and controlled all of Iran except Khorasan, in the northeast, which was ruled by Shah Rukh. His foreign campaigns against Azad Khan in Azerbaijan and against the Ottomans in Mesopotamia brought Azerbaijan and the province of Basra into his control. But he never stopped his campaigns against his arch-enemy, Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, the chief of the Ghovanloo Qajars. The latter was finally defeated by Karim Khan and his sons, Agha Mohammad Khan and Hossein Quoli Khan, were brought to Shiraz as hostages.
Karim Khan's monuments in Shiraz include the famous Arg of Karim Khan, Vakil Bazaar, and several mosques and gardens. He is also responsible for building of a palace in the town of Tehran, the future capital of the Qajar dynasty.Decline and Fall
Karim Khan's death in 1779 left his territory vulnerable to threats from his enemies. His son and successor Abu al-Fath was an incompetent ruler who was heavily influenced by his half uncle (and Karim Khan's commander), Zaki Khan. Other rulers such as Ali Morad and Jafar Khan also failed to follow the policies of Karim Khan and soon enough, the country was under attack from all sides.
The biggest enemies of the Zands, the Qajar chiefs, led by the former hostage, Agha Mohammad Khan, were advancing fast against the declining kingdom. Finally, in 1789, Lotf Ali Khan, a grand-nephew of Karim Khan, declared himself the new king. His reign (until 1794) was spent mostly in war with the Qajar khan. He was finally captured and brutally killed in the fortress of Bam, putting an effective end to the Zand Dynasty.
Politically, it is also important that the Zands, especially Karim Khan, chose to call themselves Vakilol Ro'aya (Advocate of the People) instead of kings. Other than the obvious propaganda value of the title, it can be a reflection of the popular demands of the time, expecting rulers with popular leanings instead of absolute monarchs who were totally detached from the population, like the earlier Safavids.
After the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Zand was the only dynasty whose names on public places and monuments were not removed by the new Republican government. Interestingly, a union was formed between the Zands and the Qajars in so far as Karim Khan's grand daughter, Bolour Khanum Zandieh married Mohammad Shah Qajar and bore him two daughters, Princess Ozra and Princess Effat ed-Dowleh.CultureZand era art sample, dated 1790.
The Zand era was an era of relative peace and economic growth for the country. Many territories that were once captured by the Ottomans in the late Safavid era were retaken, and Iran was once again a coherent and prosperous country. After Iranian painting reached its height at the end of the 17th century, a special school of painting took shape during the Zand era in the 17th and 18th centuries. The art of this era is remarkable and, despite the short length of the dynasty, a distinct Zand art had the time to emerge. Many Qajar artistic traits were copied from the Zand examples.
In foreign policy, Karim Khan attempted to revive the Safavid era trade by allowing the British to establish a trading post in the port of Bushehr. This opened the hands of the British East India company in Iran and increased their influence in the country. The taxation system was reorganized in a way that taxes were levied fairly. The judicial system was fair and generally humane. Capital punishment was rarely implemented.Zand Benevolent
Esteemed academic, John Perry -- the leading English authority on Karim Khan Zand's era -- writes of a forward thinking and notably popular leader, Karim Khan Zand, who he described as a man "before his time" and who -- by opening up international trade, employing a fair fiscal system and showing respect for existing religious institutions -- succeeded in creating a peaceful and prosperous state in a particularly turbulent epoch of history.
The Zand Benevolent Trust (dedicated to humanitarism and charity) has been set up by a number of Karim Khan Zand's descendants, including Nazanin Khajeh-Noori and Michael-Mehrdod Khan-e Zand Khajeh-Noori (aka Michael Khajeh-Noori), both great grand children of Princess Bolour Khanum Zandieh, the grand daughter of Karim Khan Zand, who married the Qajar King, Mohammad Shah Qajar. The Zand Benevolent Trust is a global charity dedicated to bringing hope and relief to children and the vulnerable.Order of Zand
The Most Noble Order of Zand, founded in 2009, has been set up to, among other things, bestow companionship each year on a handful of unsung heroes to the honorary Most Noble Order of the Zand (which may include a cash award). True to the spirit of the man described by Sir John Malcolm as "though born of an inferior rank, obtained power without crime, and who exercised it with a moderation that, for the times in which he lived, was as singular as his humanity and justice" nominees for consideration for selection are taken from a list proposed by any member of the public from any country in the world.
George Hosking, Founder, Chief Executive and Research Co-ordinator of The WAVE Trust (Worldwide Alternatives to ViolencE) has been one of the first to be bestowed with companion membership of the order in recognition of his remarkable efforts and reflecting the enormity of his contribution to the humane development of mankind and the creation of a truly peaceful society for us and our children to live in. George Hosking has been singularly key in founding and progressing The WAVE Trust's work to prevent violence and child abuse by tackling it at its roots and making headway at a government and international level and the path to making compassion, empathy and peace the norm rather than an idealistic goal paid lip service by the many but heed by the few.Rulers / Kings of the Zand dynastyVakeel mosque, Shiraz. Karim-khan Zand, and Lotf-ali Khan Zand are remembered well by the people of Shiraz.
|Bodaq Khan Zand||Agha Beygom||Inaq Khan Zand|
|Allah Morad Khan||Agha Beygom||Karim Khan 1750–1779||Sadiq Khan 1779–1781|
|Koda Morad Khan||Ali Murad Khan 1782–1785||Abol Fath Khan 1779||Mohammad Ali Khan 1779||Jafar Khan Zand 1785–1789|
|Sayed Murad Khan 1789||Lotf Ali Khan 1789–1794|