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White Revolution

القلاب سفید


Pahlavi_Mohammad_Reza_Shah_Sepah_Danesh_School.jpg
The White Revolution (Enghelab-e-Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by the Mohammad Reza Shah. His reform program was built especially to strengthen those classes that supported the traditional system. The Shah advertised the White Revolution as a step towards modernization, but there is little doubt that the Shah also had political motives: the White Revolution was a way for him to legitimize the Pahlavi dynasty. Through land reform, the essence of the White Revolution, the Shah hoped to ally himself with the peasantry in the countryside, and hoped to sever their ties with the aristocracy in the city. In order to legitimize the White Revolution, the Shah called for a national referendum in early 1963 in which 5,598,711 people voted for the reforms, and 4,115 voted against the reforms. Although this figure seems to suggest that a vast majority of the country was in favor of the reforms, there was plenty of controversy over its accuracy and it was quickly realized that the White Revolution lacked the technical, managerial, and organizational power it needed to succeed.The Shah had intended it to be a non-violent regeneration of Iranian society through economic and social reforms, with the ultimate long-term aim of transforming Iran into a global economic and industrial power. The Shah introduced novel economic concepts such as profit-sharing for workers and initiated massive government-financed heavy industry projects, as well as the nationalization of forests and pastureland. Most important, however, were the land reform programs which saw the traditional landed elites of Iran lose much of their influence and power. Nearly 90% of Iranian share-croppers became landowners as a result.Socially, the platform granted women more rights and poured money into education, especially in the rural areas. The Literacy Corps (Sepah Danesh) was also established, which allowed young men to fulfill their compulsory military service by working as village literacy teachers.The White Revolution consisted of 19 elements that were introduced over a period of 15 years, with the first 6 introduced in 1963 and put to a national referendum on January 26, 1963. 1. Land Reforms Program and Abolishing "Feudalism": The government bought the land from the feudal land lords at a fair price and sold it to the peasants at 30% below the market value, with the loan being payable over 25 years at very low interest rates. This made it possible for 1.5 million peasant families, who had once been little more than slaves, to own the lands that they had been cultivating all their lives. Given that average size of a peasant family was 5, land reforms program brought freedom to approximately 9 million people, or 40% of Iran's population. 2. Nationalization of Forests and Pasturelands: Introduced many measures, not only to protect the national resources and stop the destruction of forests and pasturelands, but also to further develop and cultivate them. More than 9 million trees were planted in 26 regions, creating 70,000 acres (280 km²) of "green belts" around cities and on the borders of the major highways. 3. Privatization of the Government Owned Enterprises, manufacturing plants and factories by selling their shares to the public and the old feudal lords, thus creating a whole new class of factory owners who could now help to industrialize the country. 4. Profit Sharing for industrial workers in private sector enterprises, giving the factory workers and employees 20% share of the net profits of the places where they worked and securing bonuses based on higher productivity or reductions in costs.
Tags:Enghelab, Iran, Iranian, Mohammad Reza Shah, Pahlavi, Reza Shah, Sepah, Sepah Danesh, Shah, White Revolution





See All 2 items matching White Revolution in Media Gallery

A boy and his teacher watch Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi writing a text on a black board during a visit to a new school school part of a program called Sepah Danesh Corps in the context of White Revolution in 1963.
Iranian Women Voting. During what the Pahlavi regime called the referandum on White Revolution in 1963, Iranian women experience their right to vote for the first time on major issues such as land reforms.
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