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Wall

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Mashhad_Ferdowsi_Painting_Wall_Aniranian.jpg
(Wikipedia) - Wall For other uses, see Wall (disambiguation).Decorative exterior wall, Mexico City, Mexico, 2008.A brick wall

A wall is a vertical structure, usually solid, that defines and sometimes protects an area. Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into sections, or protects or delineates a space in the open air. There are three principal types of structural walls: building walls, exterior boundary walls, and retaining walls.

Building walls have one main purpose: to support roofs and ceilings. Such walls most often have three or more separate components. In today's construction, a building wall will usually have the structural elements (such as 2×4 studs in a house wall), insulation, and finish elements or surface (such as drywall or panelling). In addition, the wall may house various types of electrical wiring or plumbing. Electrical outlets are usually mounted in walls.

Building walls frequently become works of art externally and internally, such as when featuring mosaic work or when murals are painted on them; or as design foci when they exhibit textures or painted finishes for effect.

On a ship, the walls separating compartments are termed "bulkheads", whilst the thinner walls separating cabins are termed "partitions".

In architecture and civil engineering, the term curtain wall refers to the facade of a building which is not load-bearing but functions as decoration, finish, front, face, or history preservation.

Contents

Partition wall

A partition wall is a wall for the purpose of separating rooms, or dividing a room. Partition walls are usually not load-bearing.

Partition walls may be constructed with bricks or blocks from clay, terra-cotta or concrete, reinforced, or hollow. Glass blocks may also be used.

They may also be constructed from sheet glass. Glass partition walls are a series of individual toughened glass panels, which are suspended from or slide along a robust aluminium ceiling track. The system does not require the use of a floor guide, which allows easy operation and an uninterrupted threshold.

Timber may be used. This type of partition consists of a wooden framework either supported on the floor below or by side walls. Metal lath and plaster, properly laid, forms a reinforced partition wall. Partition walls constructed from fibre cement sheeting are popular as bases for tiling in kitchens or in wet areas like bathrooms. Galvanized sheet fixed to wooden or steel members are mostly adopted in works of temporary character. Plain or reinforced partition walls may also be constructed from concrete, including pre-cast concrete blocks.

Metal framed partitioning is also available. This partition consists of track (used primarily at the base and head of the partition) and stud (vertical sections fixed at 600mm centres).

Internal wall partitions also known as office partitioning is made using plasterboard (drywall), or varieties of glass. Toughened glass is a common option as it is feasible however there is also low iron glass better known as opti-white glass which increases light and solar heat transmission.

Wall partitions are constructed using beads and tracking which are either hung from the ceiling or fixed into the ground. The panels are inserted into the tracking and fixed.

There are variations of wall partitions which include the level of fire resistance they have, and their acoustic performance rating.

Movable partitions Main article: Portable partitions

Movable partitions are used where the walls of a room are frequently opened to form one large floor area. In this system, there are several types of partitions which include;

Boundary wallsStone wall of an English barn

Boundary walls include privacy walls, boundary-marking walls on property and town walls. These intergrade into fences; the conventional differentiation is that a fence is of minimal thickness and often is open in nature, while a wall is usually more than a nominal thickness and is completely closed, or opaque. More to the point, if an exterior structure is made of wood or wire, it is generally referred to as a fence, while if it is made of masonry, it is considered a wall. A common term for both is barrier, convenient if it is partly a wall and partly a fence, for example the Berlin Wall. Another kind of wall/fence ambiguity is the ha-ha which is set below ground level, so as not to interrupt a view yet acting as a barrier to cattle for example.

An old Italian wall surrounded by flowers

Before the invention of artillery, many of the world's cities and towns, particularly in Europe and Asia, had defensive or protective walls (also called town walls or city walls). In fact, the English word "wall" is derived from Latin vallum, which was a type of fortification wall. Since they are no longer relevant for defense, such cities have grown beyond their walls, and many of the walls, or portions thereof, have been torn down, for example in Rome, Italy and in Beijing, China. Examples of protective walls on a much larger scale include the Great Wall of China and Hadrian's Wall.

Border walls Main article: Border barrier

Some walls are designed to formally separate the border between one population and another. A border wall is constructed to limit the movement of people across a certain line or border. These structures vary in placement with regard to international borders and topography. The most famous example of border barrier in history is probably the Great Wall of China, a series of walls separating the Empire of China from nomadic powers to the north; the most prominent recent example was the Berlin Wall that surrounded the enclave of West Berlin, separating it from East Germany, during most of the Cold War era.

Retaining wallsDry-stone wall - GrendonAshlar wall - Inca wall at Machu Picchu, PeruView of the western enclosing wall of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (also called the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan in Tunisia.

In areas of rocky soils around the world, farmers have often pulled large quantities of stone out of their fields to make farming easier and have stacked those stones to make walls that either mark the field boundary, or the property boundary, or both.

Retaining walls are a special type of wall, that may be either external to a building or part of a building, that serves to provide a barrier to the movement of earth, stone or water. The ground surface or water on one side of a retaining wall will be noticeably higher than on the other side. A dike is one type of retaining wall, as is a levee, a load-bearing foundation wall, and a sea wall.

Shared walls

Special laws often govern walls shared by neighbouring properties. Typically, one neighbour cannot alter the common wall if it is likely to affect the building or property on the other side. A wall may also separate apartment or hotel rooms from each other. Each wall has two sides and breaking a wall on one side will break the wall on the other side.

Portable walls

Portable walls, such as room dividers or portable partitions, are used to take a large open space and effectively divide it into smaller rooms. Portable walls can be static such as cubicle walls, or they can be wall panels mounted on casters to provide an easy way to reconfigure assembly space. They are often found inside schools, churches, convention centers, hotels and corporate facilities.

Etymology

It is notable that English uses the same word to refer to an external wall, and the internal sides of a room. This is by no means universal, and many languages distinguish between the two. In German, some of this distinction can be seen between Wand and Mauer, in Spanish between pared and muro.

Walls in popular culture

Walls are often seen in many popular cultures, representing barriers preventing progress or entry. For example, the progressive/psychedelic rock band Pink Floyd used a metaphorical wall to represent the isolation felt by the protagonist of their 1979 concept album The Wall. American poet laureate Robert Frost describes a pointless rock wall as a metaphor for the myopia of the culture-bound in his poem "Mending Wall", published in 1914. In a real-life example, the Berlin Wall, constructed by the Soviet Union to divide Berlin into NATO and Warsaw Pact zones of occupation, became a worldwide symbol of oppression and isolation.

In some cases, a wall may refer to an individual's debilitating mental or physical condition, seen as an impassable barrier.

Another common usage is as a communal surface to write upon. For instance the social networking site Facebook previously used an electronic "wall" to log the scrawls of friends until it was replaced by the "timeline" feature.

In the popular 2013 anime Attack on Titan, walls were created to keep humans from their predator foes, the Titans. Later in the manga version it is revealed that the Titans may be the ones who made them.

Tags:American, Asia, Beijing, Berlin, Border, China, Cold War, Europe, Facebook, German, Germany, Hadrian, Italian, Italy, Mexico, NATO, Pink Floyd, Rome, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tunisia, Warsaw, West Berlin, Wikipedia





See All 7 items matching Wall in Media Gallery

Mashhad: A young Iranian artist works on a Painting on a wall from Shahnameh of world-famous Ferdowsi. However, pan-Arab Aniranian zealots ordered destruction of more than 2000 meter square of artwork depicting Talebanism towards Iranian national heritage
After passing a mountainous winding road through marvelous natural beauties of green Gilan,the splendid Roodkhan castle with strong walls approximately 1550 meters wide dazzles the eyes with 65 towers built on 2.6 acres of land.
Wall Painting showing Manichean Priests from Khocho ruins, 10th/11th century CE Sassanid era religion Manichaeism religion was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani.Mani re-presented the conflict between light and the material world of darkness
Terrace Wall Ecbatana
Anahita Temple Walls Kangavar
Column of embossed spearmen on Takhtejamshid (Perspolis) Wall despite centuries of vandalism and smuggling stand as a sign of pride for Iranians

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