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Vezir

Vizier, Vezier, vizir, wazir

وزیر


Qajar_Vezir_Amirkabir_Malek_Museum.jpg
Sultan or Shah's Chief minister or prime advisor in country affairs : The office was originally held and defined by the Barmaki family in the 8th century; they acted as the caliph's representative to the public, later serving a similar function for various sultans. In the Ottoman Empire the title could be held by several people at once; under Mehmed II the position of grand vizier, the absolute representative of the sultan, was created. (Wikipedia) - Vizier   (Redirected from Vezir) For the astronomical catalogue service, see VizieR. For the Vizier of ancient Egypt, see Vizier (Ancient Egypt). Not to be confused with visor.Arms of Ottoman Vizier
Look up vizier in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A vizier (/vɪˈzɪər/, rarely /ˈvɪzjər/; وزير‎ in Arabic script (Arabic, Persian and Urdu); Hindi: वज़ीर; sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid Caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary) who was at first merely a helper, but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian kings.

In modern usage, the term has been used for ministers in the Arab world, Uzbekistan, Iran, Somalia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.

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Etymology

The word entered into English in 1562 from the Turkish vezir ("counselor"), derived from the Arabic wazir ("viceroy"). Wazir itself has two possible etymologies:

It is possible that the Semitic and Iranian terms influenced one another. An even simpler possibility is that an Iranian loanword was re-interpreted as a genuine Semitic derivation by Arabs in the manner of popular etymology, which could even have led to a modification and adaptation of both form and meaning of the word by a process called folk etymology in linguistics.

Historical ministerial titlesThe winter Diwan of a Mughal Vizier.

The Muslim office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs, Persians, Turks, Mongols and neighboring peoples (regardless of the style of the ruler), arose under the first Abbasid caliphs. The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter.

The term has been used in two very different ways: either for a unique position, the prime minister at the head of the monarch''s government (the term Grand Vizier always refers to such a post), or as a shared ''cabinet rank'', rather like a British secretary of state. If one such vizier is the prime minister, he may hold the title of Grand Vizier or another title.

In Islamic states See also: Grand VizierAn Iranian Afsharid Vizier.a Vazir of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (Shah of Persia) Modern post-monarchy use

Wazīr is the standard Arabic word for a government minister. Prime Ministers are usually termed Ra''īs al-Wuzara (literally, President of the Ministers) or al-Wazīr al-''Awwal (Prime "First" Minister). The latter term is generally found in the Maghreb, while the former is typical of usage in the Mashriq (broadly defined, including Egypt, Sudan, Levant, Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula). Thus, for example, the Prime Minister of Egypt is in Arabic a wazīr.

In Iran the ministers of government are called Vazīr in Persian (e.g. foreign/health Vazīr), and prime minister of state before the removal of the post, was called as Nokhost Vazīr.

In Pakistan, the Prime Minister (de facto ruling politician, formally under the President) is called Vazīr-e Azam (Persian for Grand vizier), other Ministers are styled vazirs.

In India, Vazīr is the official translation of minister in the Urdu language, and is used in ministerial oath taking ceremonies conducted in Urdu.

In the Nation of Islam, Louis Farrakhan is sometimes given the honorific title of Wazir.

Anachronistic historical use

It is common, even among historians, to apply contemporary terms to cultures whose own authentic titles are (or were when the habit took root) insufficiently known, in this case to pre-Islamic antiquity.

Thus in modern language-translations of the Bible, in Genesis chapter 41, Joseph, the eleventh son of Jacob, is called Vizier to Pharaoh. In this same chapter of Genesis, Pharaoh changed his newly appointed Vizier''s name to Zaphenath-paneah.

Princely title

In the rare case of the Indian princely state of Jafarabad (Jafrabad, founded c.1650), ruled by Thanadars, in 1702 a state called Janjira was founded, with rulers (six incumbents) styled wazir; when, in 1762, Jafarabad and Janjira states entered into personal union, both titles were maintained until (after 1825) the higher style of Nawab was assumed.

Art

In contemporary literature and pantomime, the "Grand Vizier" is a character stereotype and is usually portrayed as a scheming backroom plotter and the clear power behind the throne of a usually bumbling or incompetent monarch. A well-known example of this is the sinister character of Jafar in the Disney animated film Aladdin, who plots and uses magic to take over the entire Kingdom of Agrabah under the nose of the nation''s naïve sultan, just as Jaffar in the 1940 movie The Thief of Bagdad dethroned his master, caliph Ahmad. Others include Zigzag from The Thief and the Cobbler (the original inspiration for the character of Jafar in Disney''s Aladdin), the comic book character Iznogoud, Prince Sinbad''s advisor Yusuf in the DC Vertigo series Fables, and the villains of the video games Prince of Persia and King''s Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone Tomorrow.

Perhaps the origin of this character archetype is the biblical account of Esther. The book details the rise of a Jewish woman to Queen of Persia, and her role in stopping the plot of Haman, chief advisor to the Persian king, to wipe out all Jews living in Persia.

Throughout history the notion of the sinister Grand Vizier has often been invoked when a political leader appears to be developing a cozy relationship with a spiritual advisor of questionable scruples or talents. This stereotype is frequently mentioned in Terry Pratchett''s Discworld series, as for example in both Sourcery and Interesting Times.

Fictional Grand Viziers Some famous viziers in history Influence on chess

In Shatranj, from which modern chess developed, the piece corresponding to the modern chess "queen" (though far weaker) was often called Wazīr. Up to the present, the word for the queen piece in chess is still "vazīr" in Persian, "vezir" in Turkish, "wazir" in Arabic, and "vezér" in Hungarian (meaning "leader").

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See All 11 items matching Vezir in Media Gallery

Qajar Vezir Amir Kabir (1807 – 10 January 1852) also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Farahan, Amir-Nezam (The Prince of the State), and Atabak-e Azam (The Chief Minister). Born in Hazaveh, a county of Arak he was murdered by the order of Naseroddin Shah.
Bust of Mirza Taghi Khan Amirkabir, Grand Vezir of Qajar king Naseroddin Shah in Daneshjoo Park of Tehran. He lost his life trying to transform Iranian political, educational, and administrative infrastructure to a modern form despite all difficulties.
Qajar Mohammad Vali Khan Sepahdar Azam Tonekaboni is seen in all his glory in Uniforms. He was an influential Iranian politician, five times Prime Minister.
Amir Kabir (1807 – 10 January 1852) chief minister to Naseroddin Shah Qajar of Persia for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period.
Mirza Taghi Khan Amirkabir; Naseroddin Shah's Vezir
Haji Mirza Aghasi was the grand vezir of Mohammad Shah of Qajar dynasty

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