Amida, died Jan. 6, 1478,
Ruler (1453-78) of the Turkmen
Ak Koyunlu dynasty, who created a short-lived empire in
With the death of Kara Osman, founder of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty, in 1435, a civil war ensued among his descendants. By 1453 Uzun Ḥasan had emerged victorious and succeeded to the throne. His principality, centred at Amida, was surrounded by two hostile powers: in the east, the rival Turkmen dynasty of
Kara Koyunlu, led by Jahan
Shah; and in the west, the growing power of the Ottomans. Uzun Ḥasan entered into a series of alliances to secure his western flank. He made a major move in 1458 by marrying Catherine, the daughter of Kalo-Ioannes, the
Christian emperor of
Trebizond (in northeastern
Anatolia). He also strengthened diplomatic ties with Venice, Muscovy, Burgundy,
Egypt and with the Karamanid dynasty of south-central Anatolia.
In 1461 Uzun Ḥasan began his campaigns against the Kara Koyunlu. With the death of Jahan Shah in 1467, Uzun Ḥasan was able to annex territories in
Azerbaijan and Iraq. By 1469 he had occupied all of Iran. Uzun Ḥasan’s support of the Karamanids, however, precipitated war (1472) with the Ottomans (August 1473), who decisively defeated the Ak Koyunlu at the Battle of Terjan and thus emerged supreme in Anatolia.