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Uzbekistan

Ozbakestan

ازبکستان


Uzbekistan_Samarkand_Mosque.jpg
Uzbekistan is a country in central Asia (member of the Commonwealth of Independent States)The Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. Prior to 1991, it was part of the Soviet Union. Uzbekistan was once part of the Persian Samanid and later Teimurid empires, the region was conquered in the early 16th century by Uzbek nomads, who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. Most of Uzbekistan’s population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language, of Turkic languages.Uzbekistan was incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century and in 1924 became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). It has been an independent republic since December 1991.Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, potassium, and natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, Uzbekistan continues to maintain rigid economic controls, which often repel foreign investors. The policy of gradual, strictly controlled transition has nevertheless produced beneficial results in the form of economic recovery after 1995. Uzbekistan's domestic policies on human rights and individual freedoms are often criticized by international organizations.The earliest Bronze Age colonists of the Tarim Basin were people of Caucasoid physical type who entered probably from the north and west and probably spoke languages that could be classified as Pre- or Proto-Tocharian, ancestral to the Indo-European Tocharian languages documented later in the Tarim Basin. These early settlers occupied the northern and eastern parts of the Tarim Basin, where their graves have yielded mummies dated about 1800 BC. They participated in a cultural world centered on the eastern steppes of central Eurasia, including modern northeastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. At the eastern end of the Tarim Basin, people of Mongoloid physical type began to be buried in cemeteries such as Yanbulaq some centuries later, during the later second or early first millennium BC. About the same time, Iranian-speaking people moved into the Tarim Basin from the steppes to the west. Their linguistic heritage and perhaps their physical remains are found in the southern and western portions of the Tarim. These three populations interacted, as the linguistic and archaeological evidence reviewed by Mallory and Mair makes clear, and then Turkic people arrived and were added to the mix. The first people known to inhabit Central Asia were Iranian nomads who arrived from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan sometime in the first millennium BC. These nomads, who spoke Iranian dialects, settled in Central Asia and began to build an extensive irrigation system along the rivers of the region. At this time, cities such as Bukhara and Samarkand began to appear as centers of government and culture. By the 5th century BC, the Bactrian, Sogdian, and Tokharian states dominated the region. As C

Tags:Afghanistan, Asia, Bukhara, Iranian, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Persian, Russian, Samanid, Samarkand, Soviet, Soviet Union, Tajikistan, Teimurid, Turkmenistan, Uzbek, Uzbekistan





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View of the historical city of Samarkand-Uzbekistan with splendid Teimurid Bibi Khanoom Mosque. Uzbekistan was once part of the Persian Samanid realm.Samarqand was a a trade hub on the Silk Road and one of the most influential Iranian cities of antiquity.
Jalaladdin Kharazmshah, the last ruler of the Kharazmian Dynasty on Coin from Uzbekistan.Jalaladdin Kharazmshah was a very brave and restless fighter who has been praised by Iranian, Turkish and Arab historians for his resistance against Mongol invasion.

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