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Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)

اتحاد جماهیر شوروی

It consisted, in its final years, of 15 soviet socialist republics that gained independence at its dissolution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. It also contained 20 autonomous soviet socialist republics: 16 within Russia, 2 within Georgia, 1 within Azerbaijan, and 1 within Uzbekistan. Capital: Moscow. Stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean, the Soviet Union comprised the largest country on the globe, having a maximum east-west extent of about 6,800 mi (10,900 km) and a maximum north-south extent of about 2,800 mi (4,500 km). It encompassed 11 time zones and had common boundaries with 6 European countries and 6 Asian countries. Its regions contained fertile lands, deserts, tundra, high mountains, some of the world's largest rivers, and large inland waters, including most of the Caspian Sea. The coastline on the Arctic Ocean extended 3,000 mi (4,800 km), while that on the Pacific was 1,000 mi (1,600 km) long. The U.S.S.R. was an agricultural, mining, and industrial power. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, four socialist republics were established on the territory of the former Russian Empire: the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. These four constituent republics established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922, to which other republics were added over the years. A power struggle begun in 1924 with the death of communist leader Vladimir Lenin ended in 1927 when Joseph Stalin gained victory. Implementation of the first of the Five-Year Plans in 1928 centralized industry and collectivized agriculture. A purge in the late 1930s resulted in the imprisonment or execution of millions of persons considered dangerous to the state. After World War II, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. engaged in the Cold War. In the late 1940s the U.S.S.R. helped to establish communist regimes throughout most of eastern Europe. The U.S.S.R. exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949 and its first hydrogen bomb in 1953. Following Stalin's death, it experienced limited political and cultural liberalization under Nikita Khrushchev. It launched the first manned orbital spaceflight in 1961. Under Leonid Brezhnev liberalization was partially reversed. In the mid-1980s Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev instituted liberal policies of glasnost and perestroika. By the end of 1990 the communist government had toppled, and a program to create a market economy was implemented. The U.S.S.R. was officially dissolved on Dec. 25, 1991.

Tags:1927, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Brezhnev, Capital, Caspian, Caspian Sea, Cold War, Georgia, Gorbachev, Kazakhstan, Khrushchev, Kyrgyzstan, Lenin, Leonid Brezhnev, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moscow, Russia, Russian, Soviet, Soviet Union, Stalin, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, USSR, Ukraine, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Uzbekistan, World War II

See Also:Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

See All 7 items matching USSR in Media Gallery

Iran was occupied by Allied Powers during WWII. A convoy of trucks is hauling foor and other supplies from Iran to USSR leaving local people in misery. Millions of people starved from hunger during a war in which Iran had declared neutral.
On Jan, 13, 1966 Majlis approved an agreement made between Iran and USSR according to which Soviets were to build a steel mill in Isfahan with an output capacity of 550,000 tons of steel per year. By Jan, 1971 the plant was fully operational.
Abadan under occupation during World War II. Russian Pilots are assembling Airplanes arriving from USA in 1943. following Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in 1941, Reza Shah's son was installed as puppet Shah of Iran and ruled until 1979.
Occupation forces of the Allied Powers in Abadan during Wolrd War II. Soviet pilots arrived in Abadan airbase for acceptance of the Lend-Lease and ferrying aircraft to the USSR. Meanwhile they dried out Iran's resources causing large scale femine.
Mohammad Reza Shah and his wife Farah Diba meet Leonid Brezhnev in Moscow in 1965. Relations between Russia and Iran started in 1592, with the Safavids in power. Since then, mutual relations has not been in Iran's best benefit.
On June, 26, 1941 Iran Declared Neutrality At WWII but Allied Powers Invade Iran in August and plundered the country. American Airplanes in Abadan airfield are ready to be delivered to USSR on a loan to own basis.
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