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Republic of Turkey, country in western Asia and southeastern Europe between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Turkey's early history corresponds to that of Anatolia, the Byzantine Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. Byzantine rule emerged when Constantine the Great made Constantinople (modern Istanbul) his capital. The Ottoman Empire, begun in the 12th century, dominated for more than 600 years; it ended in 1918 after the Young Turk revolt precipitated its demise. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a republic was proclaimed in 1923. Turkey remained neutral throughout most of World War II (1939–45), siding with the Allied Powers in 1945. Since the war it has alternated between civil and military governments and has had several conflicts with Greece over Cyprus. (Wikipedia) - Turkey, known officially as the Republic of Turkey, is a Eurasian country located 97% in Asia (mostly in the Anatolian peninsula) and 3% in East Thrace in Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between East Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey is one of the six independent Turkic states. The vast majority of the population are Muslims. The Turkish (country's official language), Kurdish and minority languages are spoken. Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, i.e. "Land of the Turks") in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert. Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Ru00FBm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol Empire's invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatu00FCrk and his colleagues, organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey with Atatu00FCrk as its first president. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with an ancient cultural heritage. Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West through membership in organizations such as the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and the G-20 major econ

Tags:Africa, Allied Powers, Anatolia, Anatolian, Armenia, Asia, Atatürk, Azerbaijan, Bosphorus, Byzantine, Constantinople, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Istanbul, Kurdish, Manzikert, Marmara, Mediterranean Sea, Mongol, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, NATO, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Seljuk, Syria, Thrace, Turk, Turkey, Wikipedia, World War I, World War II

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Turkish Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan (died 27 February 2011 aged 84 PBUH) came to Tehran in 1996 and signed a gas deal against US pressures. His stand is remarkable as he gave priority to the Turkish national interests over those of the US.
Sassanid era Dara City/Fortress in Mesapotamia, today's Oghuz village of Turkey fell into Roman hands when Euphrates became the Roman-Sassanid border.Because of its strategic importance, it became the scene of Roman-Persian conflicts of the 6th century.
Inscription of Xerxes The Great in Van Citadel in Turkey on a smoothed section of the rock face, some 20 meters above the ground near the fortress. The niche was originally carved out by Xerxes' father Dariush the Great.
Between June 16 and July 2, 1934, Reza Shah Pahlavi visited Turkey, together with a mission of high-ranking officials, Reza Shah adored the Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as the founder of modern Turkey
Anatolia Ancient Map showing estimated locations of lost kingdoms and Greek city states such as Lydia, Lycia, Caria, Mysia, Bithynia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Paphlagonia, Cilicia, and Cappadocia.
Iranian Embassy  Ankara 1944 :LIFE

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