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Tehran

Teheran, Tahran

تهران ، طهران


Tehran_Milad_Tower_Clouds.jpg
Capital of Iran, situated on the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains. Tehran used to be a suburb of ancient Rhagae (Rey), which was destroyed by the Mongols in 1220. It was made capital in 1785 by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar.*Tehran, today's capital of Iran, has a legendary history that goes back to Sheat (Adam's son) and 3000 years old tombs in Gheytariyeh testifies a great advanced civilization in this area. Tehran used to be an agricultural area north of the city of Ray. After Mongolian army destroyed Ray, residents moved to other areas such as Tehran. It's believed that the people of Tehran used to live under ground for a long time. The earliest documents referring to the name "Tehran" date back to 10th Century.*During the reign of Shah Tahmasb Safavi (r. 1524-1576) , city walls were built around Tehran with many watch towers. 40 on south, 31 on north, 22 on west, and 21 on the east side totalling 114 as the numbers of soureh (sections) in Quran.*In 1589 when Shah Abbas was on his way to war with Uzbek army falls sick in Tehran and Mashhad was captured by the Uzbeks. Because of his dislike due to bad memories Tehran gets no more attention.*Nader shah Afshar ordered establishing a council of Shiite and Sunni leaders in Tehran in order to discuss & solve differences for unification of Muslims.*Agha Mohamd Khan Qajar (1742-1797) chose Tehran as his capital (Dar-ul-Khelafe).*Shah mosque, Azizollah mosque, Marvi Madrasa (school), Qajar palace, Negarestan Garden and Lalehzar are historical monuments of Fathali Shah era. City walls were extended 7.5 more kilometers and 6 gates were built.*During the reign of Mohammad Shah districts of Abbasabad and Mohammadiye were added and Karaj river to Tehran. Today's Keshavarz Blvd.*Dar-ul-fonoon school, Amir Bazaar and Kaffash (shoemaker) Bazaar were built during Amir Kabir's time Meanwhile Tehran's population is reported around 150,000.*In 1858, Dar-ul-fonoon prepared the first city map of Tehran in 1/1000 scale.*In 1867, city walls were extended to an octagon shape and city gates (darvazeh) became limited to 12. Namely; Shemiran, Dowlat, Yusufabad, Doshantepe, Dolapdareh, Khorasan, Bagheshah, Ghazvin, Gomrok, Abdolazim, Ghar and Khaniabad. The area within new city walls became 7.5 Square Miles.*During 20 years following 1882 moats and gates were gradually destroyed and the city started expanding to a trigonometrically. Tehran university, Railway Station, National Police, Melli Bank, Radio Station and some other buildings such as hospitals and ministries were built.*Until 1914 (End of world war II) a situation of chaos became prominent, followed by an era of a fast (Wikipedia) - Tehran This article is about the Iranian capital city. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). Tehran تهران کلانشهر تهران · Tehran Metropolis Country Province County Bakhsh Government  • Mayor  • City Council Area  • Urban  • Metro Elevation Population (2012)  • Density  • Urban  • Metro  • Population Rank in Iran   Time zone  • Summer (DST) Area code(s) Website
Metropolis
Clockwise from top: The Liberty (Āzādi) Tower, Shemirān, Āb o Ātash Park, Mount Tochāl seen from Modarres Expressway, Edifice of the Sun (Shams ol Emāreh), Ferdows Garden, and Milād Tower seen from Parkway.
Seal
Tehran
Coordinates: 35°41′46″N 51°25′23″E / 35.69611°N 51.42306°E / 35.69611; 51.42306Coordinates: 35°41′46″N 51°25′23″E / 35.69611°N 51.42306°E / 35.69611; 51.42306
 Iran
Tehran
Tehran Shemiranat
Central
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
Chairman: Mehdi Chamran
730 km2 (280 sq mi)
1,274 km2 (492 sq mi)
1,200 to 1,980 m (3,900 to 6,470 ft)
10,327.6/km2 (26,748.3/sq mi)
10,244,535
15,828,365
1st
Population Data from 2006 Census and Tehran Municipality. Metro area figure refers to Tehran Province.
IRST (UTC+03:30)
IRDT (UTC+04:30)
021
www.tehran.ir
This article contains Persian text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Tehran ( pronunciation (help·info)) (Persian: تهران‎) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province since 1778. With a population of around 8.3 million and surpassing 14 million in the wider metropolitan area, Tehran is Iran''s largest city and urban area, and the largest city in Western Asia.

In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tehran has been the subject of mass migration of people from all around Iran. The city is home to many historic mosques, churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples. However, modern structures, notably Azadi (Liberty) Tower and the Milad Tower, have come to symbolise the city. Tehran is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. Throughout Iran''s history, the capital has been moved many times, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran although it has been Iran''s capital for 240 years. Although a variety of unofficial languages are spoken, roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian. The majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Tehran was an unimportant village and part of the area of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rey (which in the Avesta occurs in the form of Rhaga), now a part of the city of Tehran, which took over its role after the destruction of Rey by the Mongols in the early 13th century.

Contents

History See also: Timeline of Tehran

An important historical city in the area of modern-day Tehran, now absorbed by it, is known as Rey, which is etymologically connected to the Old Persian and Avestan Rhages. The city was a major area of the Iranian speaking Medes and Achaemenids. Tehran became the capital of Iran in 1778.

In the Zoroastrian Avesta, Videvdad, i, 15, Ragha is mentioned as the twelfth sacred place created by Ahura-Mazda. In the Old Persian inscriptions (Behistun 2, 10–18), Ragha appears as a province. From Ragha, Darius the Great sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes (Vishtaspa), who was putting down the rebellion in Parthia (Behistun 3, 1–10).

The Damavand mountain located near the city also appears in the Shahnameh as the place where Freydun bounds the dragon-fiend Zahhak. Damavand is important in Persian mythological and legendary events. Kayūmarṯ, the Zoroastrian prototype of human beings and the first king in the Shahnameh, was said to have resided in Damāvand. In these legends, the foundation of the city of Damavand was attributed to him. Arash, the archer who sacrificed his body by giving all his strength to the arrow that demarcated Iran and Turan, shot his arrow from Mount Damāvand. This Persian legend was celebrated every year in the Tiregan festival. A popular feast is reported to have been held in the city of Damavand on 7 Šawwāl 1230, or in Gregorian calendar, 31 August 1815. During the alleged feast the people celebrated the anniversary of Zahhak''s death. In the Zoroastrian legends, the tyrant Zahhak is to finally be killed by the Iranian hero Garšāsp before the final days.

In some Middle Persian texts, Rey (Ragha) is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoraster in Khorasan. In one Persian tradition, the legendary king Manūčehr was born in Damavand.

During the Sassanid era, Yazdegerd III in 641 issued from Rey his last appeal to the nation before fleeing to Khorasan. The sanctuary of Bibi Shahr-Banu situated in modern Tehran spur and accessible only to women is associated with the memory of the daughter of Yazdegerd who, according to tradition, became the wife of al-Husayn b. Ali, the third Shi''ite Imam. Rey was the fief of the Parthian Mihran family and Siyavakhsh the son of Mihran the son of Bahram Chobin resisted the Arab invasion. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rey, they ordered the town to be destroyed and ordered Farrukhzad to rebuild the town.

In the 10th century, Rey is described in detail in the work of Islamic geographers. Despite the interest of Baghdad displayed in Rey, the number of Arabs there was insignificant, and the population consisted of Persians of all classes. The Ghuzz Turks laid Rey to waste in 1035 and in 1042, but the city recovered during the Saljuqid and Khwarazmian era. The Mongols laid Rey to complete waste and according to Islamic historians of the era, virtually all of its inhabitants were massacared. The city is mentioned in later Safavid chronicles as an unimportant city.

The origin of the name Tehran is unknown. Tehran was well known as a village in the 9th century, but was less well-known than the city of Rhages (Rey) which was flourishing nearby in the early era. Najm al-Din Razi known as Dayya gives the population of Rey as 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, following the destruction of Rey by Mongols, many of its inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In some sources of the early era, the city is mentioned as "Rhages''s Tehran". The city is later mentioned in Hamdollah Mostowfi''s Nuz''hat al-Qulub (written in 1340) as a famous village.

There is also a shrine there, dedicated to commemorate Princess Shahr Banu, eldest daughter of the last ruler of the Sassanid Empire. She gave birth to Ali Zayn al Abidin, the fourth holy Imam of the Shia faith. This was through her marriage to Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. A nearby mountain is also named after her. However, some sources attribute the shrine to the goddess of water and fertility, Anahita, claiming it was renamed in Islamic times to protect it from any possible harm after the conversion of Iranians to Islam.

Don Ruy González de Clavijo, a Castilian ambassador, was probably the first European to visit Tehran, stopping in July 1404, while on a journey to Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan) the capital of Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. At this time, the city of Tehran was unwalled.

In the early 18th century, Karim Khan Zand ordered a palace, and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital, but later moved his government to Shiraz. Tehran finally became the capital of Iran in 1795, when the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was crowned in the city. It remains the capital to this day.

In the 1920s and 30s, the city essentially was rebuilt from scratch under the rule of the Shah of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi. Reza Shah believed that ancient buildings such as large parts of the Golestan Palace, Takieh-ye Dowlat, the Toopkhaneh Square, the city fortifications and the old citadel among others should not be part of a modern city. They were systematically demolished and modern buildings in the pre-islamic Iranian style, such as the National Bank, the Police Headquarters, the Telegraph Office and the Military Academy were built in their place. The Tehran Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished in order to build wide straight avenues in the capital. Many Persian gardens also fell victim to new construction projects.

During World War II, Soviet and British troops entered the city. Tehran was the site of the Tehran Conference in 1943, attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

People from Kazerun have had a significant impact of the development of Tehran. In the 1960s and 70s Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades. The majority of these projects were continued after the Islamic revolution of 1979 when Tehran''s urbanization had reached its peak, and the new government started many other new projects, such as Milad Tower.

During the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, Tehran was the target of repeated Scud missile attacks and air strikes.

City developmentNorth of Tehran

Up through the 1870s, Tehran consisted of the walled “arg” (royal citadel), the roofed bazaar, and “sharestan” (where the masses resided in three main neighborhoods of “Udlajan”, “Chaleh Meydan”, and “Sangelaj”). The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Architecture, however, found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle. The second major planning exercise in Tehran happened under supervision of Dar ul-Funun. The map of 1878 included new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometers, which mimicked the Renaissance cities of Europe.

As a response to the growing social consciousness of civil rights, on June 2, 1907, the first parliament of Persian Constitutional Revolution passed a law on local governance known as “Ghanoon-e Baladieh”. The second and third articles of the law, on “anjoman-e baladieh”, or the city council, provide a detailed outline on issues such as the role of the councils in the city, the members’ qualifications, the election process, and the requirements to be entitled to vote.

After the First World War, Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, immediately suspended the “Ghanoon-e Baladieh” of 1907 and the decentralized and autonomous city councils were replaced by centralist/sectoralist approaches of governance and planning.

The changes in the urban fabric started with the street-widening act of 1933 which served as a framework for changes in all other cities. As a result of this act, the traditional texture of the city was replaced with cruciform intersecting streets creating large roundabouts, located on the major public spaces such as the bazaar or the hussainia.

As an attempt to create a network for the easy movement of goods and vehicles in Tehran, the city walls and gates were demolished in 1937 and replaced by wide streets cutting through the urban fabric. The new city map of Tehran in 1937 was heavily influenced by modernist planning patterns of zoning and gridiron network.

A view of Tehran''s Expressways

The establishment of the planning organization of Iran in 1948 resulted in the first socio-economic development plan to cover 1949 to 1955. These plans not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran but with the 1962 land reforms, that Shah called the White Revolution, Tehran''s growth was further accentuated. People from Kazerun have had a significant impact of the development of Tehran. To bring back order to the city and resolve the problem of “hashyehneshini”, which is the Persian equivalent of marginality, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was approved in 1968. The consortium of the Iranian consultants Abdol-Aziz Mirza Farmanfarmaian and the American firm of Victor Gruen Associates identified the city problems to be high density, expansion of new suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment, and rural-urban migration. Eventually, the whole plan was marginalized by the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the subsequent Iran-Iraq war.

ClimateUrban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the ''Circles of Sustainability'' method of the UN Global Compact Cities ProgrammeAlborz Mountain range seen from Tehran

Tehran features a semi-arid, continental climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk). Tehran''s climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, hot and dry in the summer, and cold in the winter. Because the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran. For instance, the 17.3 km (10.7 mi) Vali E Asr street runs from the Tehran''s railway station than, 1,117 m (3,665 ft) elevation above sea level, in the south of the city to the Tajrish square, 1,612 m (5,289 ft) elevation above sea level, in the north. However, the elevation can even rise up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) at the end of the Velenjak street in the north of Tehran.

Summer is usually hot and dry with very little rain, but relative humidity is generally low and the nights are cool. Most of the light annual precipitation occurs from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July, mean minimum temperature 26 °C (79 °F); mean maximum temperature 36 °C (97 °F), and the coldest is January, mean minimum temperature −1 °C (30 °F); mean maximum temperature 8 °C (46 °F).

Although Tehran enjoys a more moderate climate than other parts of the country, the weather can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The record high temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) and the record low is −17 °C (1 °F). On January 5 and 6, 2008, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures covered the city in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and closing down the capital on January 6 and 7.

Tehran has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century. This is most likely because of the afforestation projects, which also include expanding parks and lakes. The northern parts of Tehran are still more lush than the southern parts.

Tehran''s climate can be described to have some monsoon influences; the summers are very dry, and the spring and fall are rather lush, with the main precipitation occurring at this time.

Circumstances

In February 2005, heavy snow covered all of part of the city. Snow depth was 15 cm (6 in) in south part of the city and 100 cm (39 in) in the north of city. One newspaper said it had been the worst weather for 34 years. 10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 municipal workers deployed to keep the main roads open.

On February 3, 2014, Tehran reached an heavy snowfall specifically in the northern parts of the city along with an height of 2 meters. Within the 1 week successive snowfall roads have been made impassable in some areas in north of Tehran along with a temperature variety of -8 °C to -16 °C

On June 3, 2014, A powerful thunderstorm and hurricane created a sandstorm in the city. Five people were killed and more than 57 injured. This disaster also knocked numerous trees and power lines down. It struck between 5 and 6 PM, sending temperatures from 33 °C to 19 °C in just an hour. Along with the dramatic temperature drop, wind gusts reached nearly 118 km/h.

Climate data for Tehran-MEHRABAD AIRPORT, Altitude: 1190.8 M Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. rainy days Avg. snowy days  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
19.6 (67.3) 23.0 (73.4) 28.0 (82.4) 32.4 (90.3) 37.0 (98.6) 41.0 (105.8) 43.0 (109.4) 42.0 (107.6) 38.0 (100.4) 33.4 (92.1) 26.0 (78.8) 21.0 (69.8) 43 (109.4)
7.9 (46.2) 10.4 (50.7) 15.4 (59.7) 22.1 (71.8) 27.9 (82.2) 33.9 (93) 36.6 (97.9) 35.6 (96.1) 31.6 (88.9) 24.4 (75.9) 16.2 (61.2) 10.0 (50) 22.67 (72.8)
−0.4 (31.3) 1.2 (34.2) 5.4 (41.7) 11.2 (52.2) 16.1 (61) 20.9 (69.6) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 19.3 (66.7) 13.3 (55.9) 6.7 (44.1) 1.7 (35.1) 11.88 (53.39)
−15.0 (5) −13.0 (8.6) −8.0 (17.6) −4.0 (24.8) 2.4 (36.3) 5.0 (41) 14.0 (57.2) 13.0 (55.4) 9.0 (48.2) 2.8 (37) −7.0 (19.4) −13.0 (8.6) −15 (5)
34.6 (1.362) 32.2 (1.268) 40.8 (1.606) 30.7 (1.209) 15.4 (0.606) 3.0 (0.118) 2.3 (0.091) 1.8 (0.071) 1.1 (0.043) 10.9 (0.429) 26.0 (1.024) 34.0 (1.339) 232.8 (9.166)
9.1 8.4 10.9 10.7 8.8 3.0 2.1 1.3 1.0 5.2 7.1 8.8 76.4
5.1 2.9 1.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 2.7 12.3
64 56 48 41 33 25 26 26 27 36 49 62 41.1
173.6 182.8 205.5 222.8 289.5 345.1 349.5 340.3 304.0 256.1 194.9 166.1 3,030.2
Source:
Climate data for Tehran-shomal (north of tehran), Altitude: 1548.2 M from: 1988-2005 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg. rainy days Avg. snowy days  % humidity Mean monthly sunshine hours
16.4 (61.5) 19.0 (66.2) 23.8 (74.8) 33.6 (92.5) 33.6 (92.5) 37.8 (100) 39.8 (103.6) 39.4 (102.9) 35.6 (96.1) 31.2 (88.2) 23.0 (73.4) 19.0 (66.2) 39.8 (103.6)
6.1 (43) 8.1 (46.6) 12.9 (55.2) 19.8 (67.6) 25.0 (77) 31.2 (88.2) 33.9 (93) 33.5 (92.3) 29.3 (84.7) 22.4 (72.3) 14.3 (57.7) 8.6 (47.5) 20.43 (68.76)
−1.5 (29.3) −0.2 (31.6) 4.0 (39.2) 9.8 (49.6) 14 (57) 19.6 (67.3) 22.6 (72.7) 21.9 (71.4) 17.5 (63.5) 11.6 (52.9) 5.4 (41.7) 1.0 (33.8) 10.48 (50.83)
−11.4 (11.5) −11.0 (12.2) −8.0 (17.6) −1.6 (29.1) 3.0 (37.4) 12.0 (53.6) 15.4 (59.7) 13.5 (56.3) 8.8 (47.8) 2.6 (36.7) −5.2 (22.6) −9.6 (14.7) −11.4 (11.5)
63.1 (2.484) 66.5 (2.618) 83.3 (3.28) 50.1 (1.972) 27.1 (1.067) 4.0 (0.157) 4.2 (0.165) 3.2 (0.126) 3.4 (0.134) 16.5 (0.65) 41.3 (1.626) 66.3 (2.61) 429 (16.889)
12.3 10.9 12.3 10.0 8.9 3.3 3.4 1.6 1.3 5.8 8.6 10.7 89.1
8.9 6.6 2.5 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 4.9 23.7
67 59 53 44 39 30 31 31 33 44 57 66 46.2
137.2 151.1 186.0 219.1 279.8 328.7 336.6 336.8 300.5 246.8 169.4 134.1 2,826.1
Source:

Demographics See also: Demographics of TehranPopulation of TehranTehran in 1985 and 2009

The city of Tehran (not to be confused with the larger, Tehran Metropolitan) had a population of approximately 7.8 million in 2006. With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The native language of the city is the Tehrani accent of Persian and the majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persian. However, historically, the original native dialect of the Tehran–Rey region is not Persian, which is linguistically Southwest Iranian and originates in Fars in the south of the country, but a (now extinct) Northwest Iranian dialect belonging to the Central Iran group. and Azeris about 25% to 1/3, and other ethnic Minority groups included (Kurds, Arabs, Baluch, Armenians, Bakhtiari, Assyrians, Talysh), Jews and more. According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of Tehran University in many districts of Tehran across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of people in Tehran were born in Tehran, 98% know Persian, 75% identify themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% have some degree of proficiency in a European language

Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in the early 1980s. After the political, social and economic consequences of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979 and the years that followed, some Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran due to mounting political, social and religious pressure. Many Iranians moved to countries such as Canada, the United States, France, Sweden and other European countries. The highest Iranian emigration has been to the United States, France, Germany, Sweden and Canada.

With the start of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988) following an Iraqi invasion, a second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during Iraqi air offensive on the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq at that time, economic isolation caused even more reasons for the inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and having struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.

The unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who came in millions, with Tehran being a magnet for modest workers who helped the city to recover from war wounds, charging far less than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of UNHCR but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their respective country of origin. Afghan refugees are mostly Persian-speaking Hazara or Tajiks, speaking a dialect of Persian, and Iraqi refugees, who are mainly Shia Muslim Mesopotamian Arabic-speakers often of Iranian origin.

The majority of Tehranis are followers of Twelver Shia Islam, which is also the state religion. Religious minorities include followers of various sects of Sunni Islam, Mystic Islam, Christianity (including the adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church, Assyrian Church of the East, Roman Catholic Church, Chaldean Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Iranian Protestant churches like Jama''at-e Rabbani (assemblies of God), Armenian Evangelical Church, and the Presbyteran Church), Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and some from the Bahá''í Faith. Tehran also has very small number of third generation Iranian Sikh community that has a gurudwara visited by Indian Prime Minister in 2012.

Capital relocation See also: List of earthquakes in Iran

A plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years. In 2010, the government of Iran announced that "for security and administrative reasons" the plan to move the capital from Tehran has been finalized. The Majlis named Shahroud, Esfahan and Semnan as three of main candidates to replace Tehran as the capital. There are plans to relocate 163 state firms to the provinces and several universities from Tehran to avoid damages from a potential earthquake. President Ahmadinejad suggested that 5 million residents should migrate out of Tehran. As a starting point, Iranian authorities are relocating all defense-related industries out of the capital.

Location and subdivisions Regions and municipal districts of Tehran
North: District 1:  • Čizar  • Dar Abad  • Darake  • Darband  • Džamaran  • Velenjak  • Gejtarije  • Nobonjad  • Tadžriš  • Zafaranije District 2:  • Farahzad  • Shahrara  • Giša  • Punak-e    Bahtari  • Sadat Abad  • Sadegije  • Šahrak-e Garb  • Šahrak-e    Žandarmeri  • Tarašt  • Tovhid District 3:  • Darus  • Davudije  • Ehtijarije  • Golhak  • Vanak  • Žordan District 5:  • Bulvar-e    Firdusi  • Džanat Abad  • Ekbatan  • Punak District 6:  • Amir Abad  • Aržantin  • Jusef Abad  • Park-e Lale East: District 4:  • Khak Sefid  • Hakimije  • Lavizan  • Ozgol  • Pasdaran  • Resalat  • Šams Abad  • Šemiran No  • Tehranpars  • Zargande District 7:  • Abas Abad  • Behdžat    Abad  • Emam    Hosein  • Sabalan District 8:  • Moalem  • Narmak  • Samangan  • Nezam Abad District 13:  • Dušan Tape  • Niru Havaji  • Teheran No  • Piroozi District 14:  • Čaharsad    Dastgah  • Dulab  • Esfahanak  • Horasan  • Sad Dastgah Center: District 10:  • Berjanak  • Haft Čenar  • Salsabil District 11:  • Dohanijat  • Laškar  • Monirije  • Šejh Hadi District 12:  • Baharestan  • Bazar-e Tehran  • Firdusi  • Gorgan  • Park-e Šar  • Pič-e Šemiran District 17:  • Emamzade    Hasan  • Hazane Falah  • Kale Morgi South: District 15:  • Afsarije  • Bisim  • Havaran  • Kijanšar  • Masudije  • Moširije District 16:  • Ali Abad  • Bag-e Azari  • Hazane    Boharae  • Jahči Abad  • Nazi Abad District 19:  • Abdol Abad  • Hava Niruz  • Nemat Abad District 20:  • Dovlat Abad  • Džavanm.-e    Kasab  • Ebn-e    Babavejh  • Hazrat-e    Abdol-Azim  • Sizdah-e    Aban West: District 9:  • Džej  • Sar-Asjab District 18:  • Čahar Bari  • Jaft Abad  • Šad Abad  • Šahrak-e    Vali-Asr  • Tolid Daru District 21:  • Iran Hodro  • Tehransar  • Vardavard District 22:  • Bag-e    Hadž-Sejf  • Kan  • Kuj-e    Sazman-e    Barname  • Parc Čitgar  • Pejkanšar  • Stadium-e    Azadi  • Šahrak-e    Češme  • Šahrak-e    Rah-Ahan  • Šahrak-e    Omid

Tehran county borders Shemiranat county to the north, Damavand county to the east, Eslamshahr, Pakdasht, and Rey counties to the south, and Karaj and Shahriar counties to the west.

Older neighborhoods

Tehran''s old city fabric changed dramatically during the Pahlavi era. Some of the older remaining (Qajar era) districts of Tehran are: Oud-lajan, Sangelaj, Bazaar, Chaleh Meydan, Dowlat, Pamenar. Chaleh Meydan is the oldest neighbourhood of the aforementioned. Districts during Pahlavi era are: Sepah str. (Imam Khomeini), Toopkhaneh, Laleh-Zaar str. (the architecture of this street was European style) & Eslambol str. (shopping centre of northern Tehran). Other old districts are Doushan-Tappeh, Doulab, Sabzeh-Meydan, Seyed Khandan, Zarab-Khaneh and Galou-Bandaak.

North Tehran

North Tehran is a wealthy region in Tehran. North Tehran consists of various smaller districts from north east to north west; such as Zaferanieh district, Jordan, Elahieh/Elahyeh, Kamranieh, Ajoudanieh, Farmanieh, Darrous, Gheitarieh, etc. North Tehran is known as posh area where many liberal and intellectual Iranians with often secular ideas have been living. However in recent years more families from traditional Bazar and Islamic government official millionaires are living there. Their children had to either to their own religious schools or have to integrate them with this liberal segment of society.

Shopping

Tehran has a wide range of shopping opportunities, from traditional bazaars to shopping districts and modern shopping malls. The great Bazaar of Tehran and the Tajrish bazaar are the biggest traditional bazaars in Tehran. Shopping districts such as Valiasr, Shariati, Mirdamad have shopping with a wide range of different shops. Big malls like Tirajeh, Golestan, Hyperstar and smaller shopping centers like Tandis, Golestan and Safavieh are popular among Tehran’s population and visitors. Most of the international brands and upper class shops are located in the northern and western part of the city, and the rest of the shops are distributed in all the areas of the city. Tehran’s retail business is growing with new malls and shopping centers being built. The biggest malls under construction are the Tehran Mega Mall, Kourosh Mall and Tehran Mall, and smaller “luxurious” shopping centers like Zafaranieh or Farmanieh shopping center.

Administrative Subdivisions

Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts (Persian: منطقه شهرداری‎), each with its own administrative centre. Each of these municipal districts are further subdivided into municipal regions.

Municipal districts of Tehran
Name Persian Name County Number of Municipal Regions Area Population Population Density Location within Tehran
District 1 منطقه ۱ Shemiranat County 10 64 km² 379,962 5,936.9 /km²
District 2 منطقه ۲ Tehran County 9 64 km² 650,000 10,156.3 /km²
District 3 منطقه ۳ Tehran County 6 31.2 km² 293,181 9,396.8 /km²
District 4 منطقه ۴ Tehran County 9 61.4 km² 864,946 14,087.1 /km²
District 5 منطقه ۵ Tehran County 7 52.9 km² 800,000 15,122.9 /km²
District 6 منطقه ۶ Tehran County 6 21.4 km² 217,127 10,146.1 /km²
District 7 منطقه ۷ Tehran County 5 15.4 km² 309,745 20,113.3 /km²
District 8 منطقه ۸ Tehran County 3 13.4 km² 378,725 28,263.1 /km²
District 9 منطقه ۹ Tehran County 3 19.6 km² 170,000 86,73.5 /km²
District 10 منطقه ۱۰ Tehran County 3 8.2 km² 320,000 39,024.4 /km²
District 11 منطقه ۱۱ Tehran County 4 12.6 km² 280,000 22,222.2 /km²
District 12 منطقه ۱۲ Tehran County 6 16.9 km² 365,000 21,597.6 /km²
District 13 منطقه ۱۳ Tehran County 4 12.8 km² 275,727 21,541.2 /km²
District 14 منطقه ۱۴ Tehran County 6 24.3 km² 483,432 19,894.3 /km²
District 15 منطقه ۱۵ Tehran County 6 35.4 km² 694,678 19,623.7 /km²
District 16 منطقه ۱۶ Tehran County 6 18.1 km² 332,000 18,342.5 /km²
District 17 منطقه ۱۷ Tehran County 3 8.2 km² 256,022 31,222.2 /km²
District 18 منطقه ۱۸ Tehran County 5 37.5 km² 317,110 8,456.7 /km²
District 19 منطقه ۱۹ Tehran County 3 20.3 km² 249,786 12,304.9 /km²
District 20 منطقه ۲۰ Rey County 5 23.0 km² 378,445 16,454.1 /km²
District 21 منطقه ۲۱ Tehran County 3 51.6 km² 157,939 3,060.8 /km²
District 22 منطقه ۲۲ Tehran County 4 54.0 km² 138,970 2,573.5 /km²
Food and restaurantsA restaurant in DarbandSee also: Cuisine of Iran

Tehran has many modern and chic restaurants, serving both traditional Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. The most popular dish of the city is the chelow kabab (kabob/kebab is originally a Persian word meaning grilled or roasted meat). However, Western-style fast food is becoming popular, especially within the younger generation. Pizza, sandwich and kebab shops make up the majority of other food outlets in the city.

Economy See also: Economy of Iran, Industry of Iran and Communications in IranCentral Bank of Iran

Tehran is the economic centre of Iran. About 30% of Iran''s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the government. Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers.

Tehran Stock Exchange

Few foreign companies operate in Tehran because of the Iranian government''s relations to the west. But before the Islamic revolution many foreign companies were active in this region. Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment (like Tejarat Aria Gostar Iranian Navid Company considerded by Iranian press as a "major developers in Tehran’s booming construction sector"), weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery near Rey, south of the city. Tehran has four airports : Mehrabad International Airport, Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport, and Doshan Tappeh Air Base. The former Ghale Morghi Air Base has been converted to an amusement park named Velayat Park.

Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, has been one of the world''s best performing stock exchanges in recent years.

Transportation See also: Transport in Iran and Tehran Monorail Cars See also: Automotive industry in Iran

According to the head of Tehran Municipality''s Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran has a capacity almost for 700,000 cars but currently more than 3 million cars are on the roads in the capital.The automation industry has recently developed but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically.

Airport See also: Airlines of Iran

Tehran is served by two main airports. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport which doubles as a military base, is used for domestic and charter flights. This airport is located in the Western part of the city. Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles all scheduled international flights.

MetroPlay mediaTehran Subway arriving into Vali-e-asr stationSee also: Tehran Metro

Tehran claims to have one of the cleanest and most convenient metro systems, in terms of accessibility to different parts of the city, in the region. The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction were started in the 1970s. In 2001, the first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened.Now Tehran Metro has five operative lines and is 152 km (94 mi) long with another two lines under construction .

Train See also: Iranian Railways

Tehran also has a central railway station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. A Tehran-Europe train line is also running.

Bus See also: Trolleybuses in Tehran

Tehran''s transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybuses and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Buses have served the city since the 1920s. There are four bus terminals that also provide connections at low rates. The terminals are located on the South, East, West, and Bei-haghi Park-Drive.

The trolleybus system opened in 1992, using a fleet of 65 articulated trolleybuses built by Skoda. This was the first trolleybus system in Iran and remains the country''s only such system. In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Meydan-e-Emam-Hoseyn (Imam Hossein Square), near Imam Hossein station of the Tehran Metro Line 2. Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway located in the middle of the wide carriageway (along Damavand Khiyaban), stopping only at purpose-built stops located about every 500 metres, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such). The other three trolleybus routes run south from Meydan-e-Emam-Hoseyn and operate in mixed-traffic. Both route sections are served both by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services. A 3.2-km extension from Meydan-e-Shush to Meydan-e-Rah Ahan and the railway station there opened in March 2010.

Tehran Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) was officially inaugurated in 2008 by Tehran''s mayor, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf. BRT has three lines with 60 stations in different areas of the city. As at 2011, BRT had a network of 100 kilometres (62 miles), transporting 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis. The city has also developed a bike share system which includes 12 stations in one of Tehran''s districts.

Highways and streets

The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways (280 km) and of interchanges, ramps, and loops (180 km). In 2007 there were 130 km (81 mi) of highways and 120 km (75 mi) of ramps and loops under construction.

While the center of the city houses the government ministries and headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward Valiasr Avenue (formerly known as Pahlavi Avenue), Taleghani Ave, and Beheshti Ave further north. Although administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran, and Karaj are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area.

Kordestan Expressway interchange with Resalat Exp. and Hakim Exp.

A number of streets in Tehran are names after international personalities:

Air pollution See also: Environmental issues in Iran and Automotive industry in IranTehran''s air pollutionViewing of pollution from above of Tochal peak.

Tehran suffers from severe air pollution and the city is often covered by smog making breathing difficult and causing widespread pulmonary illnesses. It is estimated that about 27 people die each day from pollution-related diseases. According to local officials, 3,600 people died in a single month due to the hazardous air quality. 80% of the city''s pollution is due to cars. The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution. Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of sound pollution in Tehran.

In 2007 Iran imposed fuel rations but the plan has met little success in reducing the pollution levels. In 2011, with the improvements in the public transport system and the rise in fuel prices due to the new subsidies reform plan, the Government is hoping to be able to improve the problems of pollution and traffic.

The air pollution is due to several different reasons:

However, the government, is engaged in a battle to reduce air pollution. It has, for instance, encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas. Furthermore, since 1979 the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has set up a "Traffic Zone" (Tarhe Trāfik) covering the city center during peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit. The government is also trying to raise people''s awareness about the hazards of the pollution. One method that is currently being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). The board also displays the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), which is a general indication of air quality based on the measurements of the above-mentioned five pollutants. The Pollution Indicator Boards classify the level of each pollutant as either safe, hazardous or dangerous.

Education and research See also: Education in Iran, List of colleges and universities in Tehran and Science in IranHematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center (HORCSCT)

Tehran is the largest and most important educational center of Iran. Today there are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran.

University of Tehran is the oldest modern university of Iran

Since the establishment of Darolfonoon in the mid-19th century, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan, whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran was named after, was also one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran. Among major educational institutions located in Tehran, University of Tehran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology are the most prestigious universities of Iran. University of Tehran is also the oldest university in Iran and one of the oldest in Central and South Asia.

Allameh Tabatabaei University, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University,Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahed University and Tarbiat Modarres University are other highly ranked universities of Iran located in Tehran.

Tehran is also home to Iran''s largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.

Sports See also: Sport in Iran

Tehran was the first city in the Middle East to host the Asian Games. The 7th Asian Summer Games in 1974, was held with the participation of 2,363 athletes and officials from 25 countries.

Tehran is also the site of Iran''s national football stadium on Azadi Sport Complex with 100,000 seating capacity. Azadi Football Stadium is one of the largest in Western Asia and one of the biggest in the World. Many of the top matches of Iran''s Premier League are held here. In 2005, FIFA ordered Iran to limit spectators allowed into Azadi stadium because of a fatal crush and inadequate safety procedures. Other stadiums in Tehran are Shahid Dastgerdi Stadium, Takhti Stadium, and Shahid Shirudi Stadium, among others.

Skiers at the resort of Dizin

The ski resort of Dizin is situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz Mountains. Tochal Ski Resort is the world''s fifth highest ski resort, at over 3,730 metres (12,240 ft) at its highest 7th station. The resort was completed in 1976 shortly before the overthrowing of the Shah.

Here, one must first ride the eight kilometre (five mile) long gondola lift which covers a huge vertical and is probably the longest line in the world. The 7th station has three slopes. The resort''s longest slope is the south side U shaped slope which goes from the 7th station to 5th station. The other two slopes are located on the north side of the 7th station. Here, there are two parallel chair ski lifts that go up to 3,900 metres (12,795 ft) near Tochal''s peak (at 4,000 m/13,125 ft), rising higher than the gondola 7th station. This altitude is higher than any of the European resorts.

From the Tochal peak, one has a spectacular view of the Alborz range, including the 5,610-metre-high (18,406 ft) Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano.

At the bottom of the lifts in a valley behind the Tochal peak is Tochal Hotel, located at 3,500 metres (11,483 ft) altitude. From there a T lift takes skiers up the 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) of Shahneshin peak, where the third slope of Tochal is.

Tochal 7th station has skiing eight months of the year. But there are also some glaciers and year-round snow fields near Tehran where skiing began in 1938, thanks to the efforts of two German railway engineers. Today, 12 ski resorts operate in Iran, but the most famous are Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours of Tehran.

FootballPanoramic view from the Azadi Stadium, the largest football stadium in West Asia.

Tehran is the host to five major football clubs in the Iran Pro League, namely:

Club Sport Founded League Head Coach
Rah Ahan F.C. Association football 1937 Iran Pro League (IPL) Hamid Estili
Esteghlal F.C. Association football 1945 Iran Pro League (IPL) Amir Ghalenoei
Naft Tehran F.C. Association football 1950 Iran Pro League (IPL) Alireza Mansourian
Persepolis F.C. Association football 1963 Iran Pro League (IPL) Hamid Derakhshan
Paykan Association football 1967 Iran Pro League (IPL) Mansour Ebrahimzadeh

Tehran is also host to many small clubs.

Club Sport League
Parseh Tehran F.C. Association Football Azadegan League
Niroye Zamini F.C. Association Football Azadegan League
Sanati Kaveh Tehran F.C. Association Football 2nd Division
Moghavemat Tehran F.C. Association Football 2nd Division
Oghab F.C. Association Football 3rd Division
Entezam Tehran F.C. Association Football 3rd Division
Naftoon Tehran F.C. Association Football 3rd Division
Main attractions See also: Architecture of TehranMilad Tower

Tehran is a relatively old city; as such, it has an architectural tradition unique to itself. Archaeological investigations and excavations in Tehran demonstrate that this area was home to civilizations as far back as 6,000 years BC in the village of Rey which is now incorporated into the city. Tehran served only as a village to a relatively small population for most of its history, but began to take a more considerable role in Iran after it was made the capital in the late 18th century. Despite the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and before, some buildings still remain from Tehran''s era of antiquity. Today Tehran is Iran''s primate city, and has the most modernized infrastructure in the country; however, the gentrification of old neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns. The Azadi Tower has been the longstanding symbol of Tehran. It was constructed to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian empire, and was originally named "Shahyad Tower"; after the Iranian revolution, its name changed to "Azadi Tower," meaning "Freedom Tower." The recently constructed Milad Tower may eventually replace the Azadi Tower as Tehran''s new symbol. The Milad complex contains the world''s sixth tallest tower, several restaurants, a five star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center, and an IT park. Traditionally a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been undertaken in order to service its growing population. There have been no major quakes in Tehran since 1830.

The tallest residential building in Iran is a 54-story building located North of Youssef Abad district, the Tehran International Tower. It is architecturally similar to Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip in the Paradise community of Clark County, Nevada, United States. Appealing to the principle of vertical rather than horizontal expansion of the city, the Tehran International Tower is bound to the North by Youssef Abad, to the South By Hakim Highway, to the East by Kordesstan Highway and to the West by Sheikh Bahai Highway, all of which facilitate access to various parts of the city.

Tourism and attractions See also: Tourism in Iran

Tehran, as Iran''s showcase and capital city, has a wealth of cultural attractions. The Sun Throne (aka Peacock Throne) of the Persian Kings (Shahs) can be found in Tehran''s Golestan Palace. Some of the well-known museums are National Museum of Iran, Sa''dabad Palaces Complex, Glassware and Ceramics Museum of Iran, The Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran''s Underglass painting Museum, Niavaran Palace Complex, and Safir Office Machines Museum. The Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art features works of famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. The collection of these paintings was selected by former Empress Farah Diba.

Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, it is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection comprises a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shahs of Iran during the 2,500 year existence of the Iranian Kingdom. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran.

Tehran International Book Fair (TIBF) is known to the international publishing world as one of the most important publishing events in Asia.

Recreation

The most popular social activity, especially among the younger generation is cinema. Most cinema theatres are located downtown. The Azadi Cinema was inaugurated in 2008. It is the largest cinema complex in Tehran with ten theatres. The Cinema Farhang in the north is the only official theatre that plays foreign films in Tehran.

The Tehran Zoological Garden (Eram Zoo) and Eram City Game are also popular meeting points, especially for families with children. A new larger zoo is planned for 2010.

Artists often mingle at the House Of Artists. Theatre Shahr was opened in 1962. It is the largest theatre in Tehran. Tehran TV 1, Tehran Cinema TV, Omid TV and Tehran Show TV are among the most popular TV stations in Tehran. Tehran TV2, Tehran TV3 and Tehran Sport are planned to be launched in 2012.

The following table shows some places for outdoors activities in Tehran:

Tochal Ski resort Darband hiking trail Chitgar Park Niavaran Park Sa''ei Park Daneshju Park Goft-o-gū Park
Mellat Park Laleh Park Jamshidieh Park Shatranj Park Darakeh hiking trail Jahan-e Kudak Park Azadi Sports Complex
Enghelab Sports Complex and Golf course Latyan Lake Lavizan Forest Park Vardavard Forest Park Khajeer National Park Kavir National Park Lavizan
Tar Lake Amir Kabir Lake Lar Protected Natural Habitat Varjeen Protected Natural Habitat Pardisan Tangeh Savashi Farahzad
Religious centers See also: List of religious centers in TehranThe Armenian St. Sarkis Cathedral Church in Tehran

There are many religious centers scattered around the city from old to newly built centers. There are mosques, churches, and synagogues where followers of these religions can practice their faith.

The Friday prayer in Tehran is usually hosted by University of Tehran which is led by a Friday prayer leader and on special occasions by the Supreme Leader of Iran. Hundreds of thousands of people participate in the prayers, during which the city of Tehran comes to a standstill.

Graffiti Main article: Graffiti in Tehran

Many styles of Graffiti are seen in Tehran. Many are slogans painted by governmental organizations. In recent years Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city.

Events Panoramic view of Tehran at nightSister cities Country City State / Province / Region / Governorate Date
South Korea Seoul Seoul National Capital Area 1963
United States Los Angeles California 1972
United Kingdom London Greater London 1993
Cuba Havana La Habana Province 2001
South Africa Pretoria Gauteng 2002
Russia Moscow Central Federal District 2004
Venezuela Caracas Venezuelan Capital District 2005
Turkey Istanbul 2006
Belarus Minsk Minsk Region 2006
China Beijing 2006
Brazil Brasilia Federal District 2006
Tajikistan Dushanbe 2006
Philippines Manila National Capital Region 2008
United Arab Emirates Dubai Emirate of Dubai 2012
Turkey Ankara 2013

Tehran has also signed Mutual Cooperation and Understanding with a number of cities including Baghdad (Iraq), Kabul (Afghanistan), Paris (France), Milan (Italy) and St. Petersburg (Russia).

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See All 384 items matching Tehran in Media Gallery

The new symbol of metropolitan Tehran: Milad Tower reaches out to the clouds. The futuristic structure is visible from almost all parts of the Iranian capital except for smoggy days when it gives more like an apocalyptic impression.
A street musician plays Santour on the Valiasr Street of Tehran. Santour is a very delicate and complicated musical instrument from ancient Iran with 72 strings played using oval-shaped mallets (Mezrabs) providing a range of approximately three octaves.
A pleasant restaurant built on the slopes of Alborz Mountain in Darband, a popular getaway north of Tehran serving a broad range of autentic Iranian cuisine. It's called Garden of Paradise using an original Persian concept of two words with same meanings.
A protester holds up sign that reads Pahlavi Street in Tehran during the Iranian Revolution that toppled the last Iranian monarchy in Feb, 1979. The majority of Iranians have been supporting the Islamic Republic despite shot-comings and ups and downs.
Amoo Norooz ushers in the spring time every year according to Persian tradition and brings children gifts, much like his Western counterpart Santa Claus.The other Norooz mythical characters is Naneh Sarma (Grandma Frost)
A big red fish, one of elements of the Haftseen set has been placed near Tehran's Milad Tower during Nowruz festivities March, 2013. Despite objections from some extremist zealots, Iranians have been keeping the world's oldest registered celebration.

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