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    * Shah Tahmasp *

    Shah Tahmasb

    شاه تهماسب ، شاه طهماسب یکم

    Shah Tahmasp I of Safavid dynasty (Feb, 22, 1514-May, 14, 1576) son of Shah Ismail I, was an influential king of Iran who reigned the longest of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the Shah Tahmasp, the young governor of Herat, succeeded his father Shah Ismail 1. in 1524, when he was ten years and three months old. He was the ward of the powerful Kizilbash Amirali Beg Rūmlū AKA "Div Sultan" who saw himself as the de facto ruler of the state. For around ten years, rival Kizilbash factions fought among themselves for the control of the empire until Shah Tahmasp came of age and reasserted his authority. He reigned for 52 years, the longest reign in Safavid history. His reign was marked by foreign threats, primarily from the Ottomans and the Uzbeks. In 1555, however, he reached a peace accord with Ottomans in Amasya ending 23 years of war. This peace lasted for 20 years, until it was broken in the time of Sultan Mohammed Khodabandeh.The Uzbeks, during the reign of Tahmasp, attacked the eastern provinces of the kingdom five times and the Ottomans under Soleyman I invaded Persia four times. Persia lost territory in Iraq, and Tahmasp was forced to move his capital from Tabriz to Qazvin. After the death of Shah Tahmasp in 1576, the struggle for a dominant position in the state was complicated by rival groups and factions. Dominant political factions vied for power and support three different candidates. First, Shah Ismail 2. was placed on the throne (1576-1577) and after him Mohammad Shah Khodabandeh (1578-1588).He gave refuge to Homayoon Shah, the Mughal emperor of India. Shah Tahmasp encouraged the Persian rug industry on a national scale, thus reviving an ancient art. (Wikipedia) - Tahmasp I   (Redirected from Shah Tahmasp) Shah Tahmasp I Reign Coronation Predecessor Successor Full name House Father Mother Born Died Burial Religion
    Shahanshah of Persia, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin
    Painting of Shah Tahmasp I at Chehel Sotoon palace.
    23 May 1524 – 25 May 1576
    2 June 1524
    Ismail I
    Ismail II
    ‘Abu’l Muzaffar ‘Abu’l Fath Sultan Shah Tahmasb bin Shah Ismail al-Safavi al-Husayni al-Musavi
    Shah Ismail I
    Tajlu Khanum
    22 February 1514 Shahabad
    14 May 1576(1576-05-14) (aged 62) Qazvin
    Shia Islam

    Tahmasp I (Persian: شاه تهماسب یکم‎) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I.

    He came to the throne aged ten in 1524 and came under the control of the Qizilbash, Turkic tribesmen who formed the backbone of the Safavid power. The Qizilbash leaders fought among themselves for the right to be regents over Tahmasp. Upon adulthood, however, Tahmasp was able to reassert the power of the Shah and control the tribesmen with the introduction of large amounts of Caucasian elements, creating new layers in society. These layers, solely composed of ethnic Circassians, Georgians and Armenians, would continue to play a crucial role in Persia''s royal household, harems and in the civil and military administration for centuries after Tahmasp and also eventually fully eliminate the effective power of the Qizilbash in most of the functioning posts of the empire.

    His reign was marked by foreign threats, primarily from the Safavid''s arch rival, the Ottomans, and the Uzbeks in the far east. In 1555, however, he regularized relations with the Ottoman Empire through the Peace of Amasya. By this treaty historical Armenia and Georgia were divided equally between the two, the Ottoman Empire obtained most of Iraq, including Baghdad, which gave them access to the Persian Gulf, while the Persians retained their former capital Tabriz and all their other north-western territories in the Caucasus (Dagestan, Azerbaijan) and as they were prior to the wars. The frontier thus established ran across the mountains dividing eastern and western Georgia (under native vassal princes), through Armenia, and via the western slopes of the Zagros down to the Persian Gulf. The Ottomans, further, gave permission for Persian pilgrims to go to the holy places of Mecca and Medina as well as to the Shia sites of pilgrimages in Iraq. This peace lasted for 30 years, until it was broken in the time of Shah Mohammed Khodabanda.

    Tahmasp is also known for the reception he gave to the fugitive Mughal Emperor Humayun, which is depicted in a painting on the walls of the Safavid palace of Chehel Sotoon. Humayun''s return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and soldiers, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture, as the Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature.

    One of Shah Tahmasp''s more lasting achievements was his encouragement of the Persian rug industry on a national scale, possibly a response to the economic effects of the interruption of the Silk Road carrying trade during the Ottoman wars.


    Biography Regency 1524–1533

    Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum (known under the title Tajlu Khanum) of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe. He was only 10 years old when he succeeded his father Shah Ismail, the founder of Safavid rule in Iran. Too young to rule in his own right, Tahmasp came under the control of the Qizilbash. Some of the tribes recognised a Qizilbash leader, Div Sultan Rumlu, as regent (atabeg) to the shah, but others dissented and in 1526 a bloody civil war broke out among the differing factions. Div Sultan emerged victorious but his ally, Chuha Sultan Takkalu, turned against him and urged the shah to get rid of him. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. When it failed to kill him, the shah''s supporters finished him off.

    Chuha Sultan now became regent. Iran''s enemies, the Uzbeks, had taken advantage of the civil war to invade the north-eastern province of Khorasan. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to reassert control of the region. Although they defeated the Uzbeks in a battle near Jam, Tahmasp was disgusted at the cowardice Chuha Sultan had displayed during the combat. Finally, in 1530/1, a quarrel broke out between members of the Takkalu and Shamlu Qizilbash factions and the Shamlus succeeded in killing Chuha Sultan. The Takkalus regained the advantage and some of them even tried to kidnap the shah. Tahmasp lost patience and ordered a general massacre of the Takkalu tribe. They never regained their influence in Iran.

    The leader of the Shamlu faction, Husayn Khan, now assumed the regency but, in 1533, Tahmasp suspected Husayn Khan was plotting to overthrow him and had him put to death. Tahmasb was now old enough and confident enough to rule in his own right.

    Foreign threats 1533–1553The 16th century Chehel Sotun pavillon in Qazvin. It is the last remnant of the palace of Shah Tahmasb. It was heavily restored by the Qajars in the 19th century.Main article: Ottoman-Safavid War (1532–1555)

    The discord in Iran had allowed its enemies, the Uzbek khans in the east and the Ottoman Empire in the west, to seize territory. The Ottomans were at the height of their power during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. They launched four invasions of Iran between 1533 and 1553. Since the Ottoman army possessed overwhelming numerical superiority, Tahmasp avoided pitched battle with them and resorted to alternative tactics.

    In 1534, Suleiman invaded Iran with a force numbering 200,000 men and 300 pieces of artillery. Tahmasp could only field 7,000 men (of dubious loyalty) and a few cannons. The Ottomans seized the Safavid capital Tabriz, and captured Baghdad. Tahmasp avoided direct confrontation with the Ottoman army, preferring to harass it then retreat, leaving scorched earth behind him. This scorched earth policy led to the loss of 30,000 Ottoman troops as they made their way through the Zagros mountains and Suleiman decided to abandon his campaign.

    Next, Suleiman tried to exploit the disloyalty of Tahmasp''s brother Alqas Mirza, who was governor of the frontier province of Shirvan. Alqas had rebelled and, fearing his brother''s wrath, he had fled to the Ottoman court. He persuaded Suleiman that if he invaded the Iranians would rise up and overthrow Tahmasp. In 1548, Suleiman and Alqas entered Iran with a huge army but Tahmasp had already "scorched the earth" around Tabriz and the Ottomans could find few supplies to sustain themselves. Alqas penetrated further into Iran but the citizens of Isfahan and Shiraz refused to open their gates to him. He was forced to retreat to Baghdad where the Ottomans abandoned him as an embarrassment. Captured by the Iranians, his life was spared but he was condemned to spend the rest of his life in prison in the fortress of Qahqaha.

    During the final Ottoman invasion of Iran in 1553, Tahmasp seized the initiative and defeated Iskandar Pasha near Erzerum. He also captured one of Suleiman''s favourites, Sinan Beg. This persuaded the sultan to come to terms at the Peace of Amasya in 1555. The treaty freed Iran from Ottoman attacks for three decades. Nevertheless, Tahmasp took the precaution of transferring his capital from Tabriz to Qazvin, which was further away from the border.

    Between 1540 and 1553, Tahmasp conducted military campaigns in the Caucasus region in both his territories and beyond, capturing many tens of thousands of Armenians, Georgians and Circassians. These would become an important new element in Iranian society.

    Royal refugees: Bayezid and HumayunShah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun.Shah Tahmasp and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.

    The Mughal Empire was Iran''s eastern neighbour. In 1544, the Mughal emperor, Humayun, fled to Tahmasp''s court after he had been overthrown by the Pashtun rebel Sher Shah Suri (Sher Khan). Tahmasp insisted on the Sunni Humayun converting to Shi''ism before he would help him. Humayun reluctantly agreed and also gave Tahmasp the strategically important city of Kandahar in exchange for Iranian military assistance against the heirs of Sher Khan and his own rebellious brothers. By 1555, he had regained his throne.

    Humayun was not the only royal figure to seek refuge at Tahmasp''s court. A dispute arose in the Ottoman Empire over who was to succeed the aged Suleiman the Magnificent. Suleiman''s favourite wife, Hürrem Sultan, was eager for her son, Selim, to become the next sultan. But Selim was an alcoholic and Hürrem''s another son, Bayezid, had shown far greater military ability. The two princes quarrelled and eventually Bayezid rebelled against his father. His letter of remorse never reached Suleiman and he was forced to flee abroad to avoid execution. In 1559, Bayezid arrived in Iran where Tahmasp gave him a warm welcome. Suleiman was eager to negotiate his son''s return, but Tahmasp rejected his promises and threats until, in 1561, Suleiman offered him land and 400,000 gold pieces. In September of that year, Tahmasp and Bayezid were enjoying a banquet at Tabriz when Tahmasp suddenly pretended he had received news that the Ottoman prince was engaged in a plot against his life. An angry mob gathered and Tahmasp had Bayezid put into custody, alleging it was for his own safety. Tahmasp then handed the prince over to the Ottoman ambassador. Shortly afterwards, Bayezid was killed by agents sent by his own father.

    Final yearsThe Mughal Emperor Akbar receives Sayyid Beg the ambassador of the Safavid dynasty''s Shah Tahmasp discussing their rivalry over Kandahar.

    In 1574, Tahmasp fell ill and discord broke out among the Qizilbash once more, this time over which prince was to succeed him. The shah''s Georgian and Circassian wives had also introduced a new faction into the court. Seven of Tahmasp''s surviving sons were by Georgian or Circassian mothers and two by a Turcoman. Of the latter, Mohammed Khodabanda was regarded as unfit to rule because he was almost blind, and his younger brother, Ismail, had been imprisoned by Tahmasp since 1555. Nevertheless, one court faction supported Ismail, while another backed Haydar Mirza, the son of a Georgian. Tahmasp himself was believed to favour Haydar but he prevented his supporters from killing Ismail.

    Tahmasp died as a result of poison, although it is unclear whether this was by accident or on purpose. On his death, as expected, fighting broke out between the different court factions. Haydar was killed and Ismail emerged triumphant as Shah Ismail II.

    In 1574, Tahmasp also had the 36th Nizari Ismaili Shia Imam Murād Mīrzā executed, due to the perceived political threat he posed.

    Tahmasp and the arts

    Tahmasp was an enthusiastic patron of the arts with a particular interest in the Persian miniature, especially book illustration. He had been trained in drawing himself, and had some talent. The most famous example of such work is the Shāhnāma-yi Shāh Tahmāsbī (King''s Book of Kings), commissioned for Tahmasb by his father and containing 250 miniatures by the leading court artists of the era. However in the 1540s he is recorded as losing interest in the arts, and his imperial atelier largely dispersed.

    The reign of Tahmasp I is considered the most brilliant period in the history of the Azerbaijani language and Azerbaijani literature at this stage of its development.

    Tahmasp was against music and dispelled all the musicians from his court.


    He married (first) his maternal first cousin, Kadamali Sultan Begum, née Sultanum Begum daughter of Musa Sultan bin ‘Isa Beg Musullu, of the Aq Quyunlu, m. (second) Sultan Agha Khanum, a Circassian, sister of Shamkhal Kara-Musal Sultan, Governor of Sakki, m. (third), Sultanzada Khanum, a Georgian, m. (fourth) Zahra Baji, daughter of Prince Ot''ar Shalikashvili of Samtskhe from Shalikashvili family of Georgia, m. (fifth) Khan-Parwar Khanum, a Georgian, m. (sixth) Huri-Khan Khanum, a Georgian, m. (seventh) daughter of the Governor of Daghestan, m. (eighth) Aisha Begum, daughter of Sufian Khan, Khan of Khiva, m. (ninth) Zainab Sultan Khanum, m. (tenth) Zahra Baji, a Georgian.

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