شاه تهماسب ، شاه طهماسب یکم
Shah Tahmasp I of
Safavid dynasty (Feb, 22, 1514-May, 14, 1576) son of
Shah Ismail I, was an influential king of
Iran who reigned the longest of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the
Tahmasp, the young governor of
Herat, succeeded his father Shah Ismail 1. in 1524, when he was ten years and three months old. He was the ward of the powerful
Beg Rūmlū AKA "Div
Sultan" who saw himself as the de facto ruler of the state. For around ten years, rival Kizilbash factions fought among themselves for the control of the empire until Shah Tahmasp came of age and reasserted his authority.
He reigned for 52 years, the longest reign in Safavid history. His reign was marked by foreign threats, primarily from the Ottomans and the Uzbeks. In 1555, however, he reached a peace accord with Ottomans in
Amasya ending 23 years of war. This peace lasted for 20 years, until it was broken in the time of Sultan Mohammed Khodabandeh.
The Uzbeks, during the reign of Tahmasp, attacked the eastern provinces of the kingdom five times and the Ottomans under Soleyman I invaded
Persia four times. Persia lost territory in
Iraq, and Tahmasp was forced to move his capital from
After the death of Shah Tahmasp in 1576, the struggle for a dominant position in the state was complicated by rival groups and factions. Dominant political factions vied for power and support three different candidates. First, Shah Ismail 2. was placed on the throne (1576-1577) and after him
Mohammad Shah Khodabandeh (1578-1588).
He gave refuge to Homayoon Shah, the
Mughal emperor of
Shah Tahmasp encouraged the
Persian rug industry on a national scale, thus reviving an ancient art.