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Qom is a city NW central Iran.Qom lies 156 kilometers southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.Qom is considered holy by Shiite Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatema Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza. The city is the largest center for Shiite scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage.Qom as an urban settlement existed in the pre-Islamic ages. Architectural discoveries indicate that Qom was a residential area from the 5th millennium BC. Pre-Islamic remaining relics and historical texts point to the fact of Qom being a large regional city. Kum was known to be the name of this ancient city, thus, the incoming 7th century Arabs called it Qom during the conquests of Iran.During the caliphate of Omar ibn Khattab, the area of Qom fell to the invading Arab armies of Islam. In 645 AD, Abu Musa Ash'ari also dispatched forces under his command to the area. Conflicts resulted between the incoming Arab army and the residents of the area.In Seljuki times, the city flourished as well. During the Mongol invasion of Persia the city witnessed widespread destruction, but after the Mongol ruling dynasty, also known as the Ilkhanates, converted to Islam during the reign of Oljaitu (Persian Mohammad Khodabandeh), the city received special attention, thus undergoing a revival once more.In the late 14th century, the city was plundered by Teimur Lang and the inhabitants were massacred. But during the periods of rule of the Kara Koyunlu, Ak Koyunlu and especially during the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed due to its religious shrine.By 1503 Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to the Shiite Islam, and became a significant religious pilgrimage site and pivot.The city suffered heavy damages again during the Afghan invasions, resulting in consequent severe economic hardships. Qom further sustained damages during the reigns of Nader Shah and the conflicts between the two households of Zand and Qajar in order to gain power over Iran.Finally in 1793 Qom came under the control of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. On being victorious over his enemies, the Qajar Sultan Fathali Shah undertook repairs of the Holy Shrine of Masoumeh, as he had made such a vow.The city of Qom began another era of prosperity in the Qajar era. After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom because of proximity. Coinciding with this period, a "National Defense Committee" was set up in Tehran, and Qom turned into a political and military center opposed to the Russian and British colonial powers.As a center of religious learning Qom fell into decline for about a century from 1820 to 1920, but had a resurgence when Sheikh Abdol Karim Haeri Yazdi accepted an invitation to move from Abu Musa, Agha Mohammad Khan, Ak Koyunlu, Arab, British, Fathali Shah, Ilkhanates, Imam, Imam Reza, Iran, Islam, Islamic, Kara Koyunlu, Karaj, Khan, Masoumeh, Mohammad Khodabandeh, Mongol, Musa, Nader Shah, Oljaitu, Persia, Persian, Qajar, Qom, Qom Province, Russian, Shah, Sheikh, Shiite, Sultan, Tehran, Teimur Lang, Yazdi, Zand

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Persian Carpet Weavers in a workshop in Qom. The silk carpets of Qom are known for their high quality and have the most small dotted ones in Iran. Iran's more than 1 million weavers produce an average of $500 million in exports a year.
Iranian Women wearing Chador pass Qom Martyrs Cemetery on March, 31, 1979. Photo by: Christine Spengler. Paying tributes to death, especially martyrs is a tradition among most Iranians during special occasions such as Iranian Festivities including Norooz.
Pahlavi era: Ayatollah Kashani is seen with Imam Khomeini in 1952 in Qom during a special mourning ceremony in honor of Ayatollah Khansari.
A dove flying over the Jamkaran Mosque near Qom Iran. The famous Jamkaran mosque where Imam Mahdi is said to have appeared in a cleric's dream; has since been the visiting place for flocks of pilgrims.
Qom: Saint Masoumeh Mausoleum at Night. She was the sister of Imam Reza.
Qom Green Dome Garden Tombs located in Darvazeh Kashan inside of a garden. One Tomb belongs to Ali Safi, and others are resting place of Saad, Saeed and Masood who were three Ashari leaders,

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