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|Shazdeh Hosein shrine|
|Coordinates: 36°16′N 50°00′E / 36.267°N 50°E / 36.267; 50Coordinates: 36°16′N 50°00′E / 36.267°N 50°E / 36.267; 50|
|Elevation||1,800 m (5,900 ft)|
Qazvin (/kæzˈviːn/; Persian: قزوین, IPA: ), also Romanized as Qazvīn, Kazvin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin, is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was an ancient capital in the Persian Empire and nowadays is known as calligraphy capital of Iran. At the 2010 census, its population was 572,916.
Located in 150 km northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1800 meters above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range.
The city was a former capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids. It is a provincial capital today that has been an important cultural center throughout history.
Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages.
The city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur, when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions."Peighambariyeh": Here, four Jewish saints are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.
Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at important moments of Iranian history. Captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Hulagu Khan (13th century), Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire (founded in 1501 AD), a status that Qazvin retained for half a century.
Qazvin is the place from which the famous coup d’état that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched in 1921.People
The majority of the people of the province and the city of Qazvin are Persians and the main language of the people of Qazvin is Persian languages with the Qazvini accent. Other languages include Tati (in Takestan), Kurdish, Azeri, Luri, Romani.Climate
|5.1 (41.2)||7.6 (45.7)||13.7 (56.7)||20.0 (68.0)||25.9 (78.6)||32.2 (90.0)||35.6 (96.1)||34.6 (94.3)||30.9 (87.6)||23.1 (73.6)||15.4 (59.7)||8.1 (46.6)||21.02 (69.83)|
|−4.7 (23.5)||−2.9 (26.8)||1.7 (35.1)||6.4 (43.5)||10.6 (51.1)||14.6 (58.3)||17.7 (63.9)||16.9 (62.4)||12.9 (55.2)||7.8 (46.0)||2.9 (37.2)||−1.9 (28.6)||6.83 (44.30)|
|44.5 (1.752)||40.8 (1.606)||52.1 (2.051)||41.0 (1.614)||34.5 (1.358)||5.9 (0.232)||1.2 (0.047)||1.9 (0.075)||0.8 (0.031)||21.7 (0.854)||27.8 (1.094)||44.0 (1.732)||316.2 (12.449)|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation|
Qazvin contains few buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehelsotoon (Kolah Farangi) mansion, today a museum in central Qazvin.Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran.
After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the prominence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools. They include:
Qazvin contains three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall), a water reservoir, and the Cantor church, where a Russian pilot is buried.
Other attractions near Qazvin are the tombs of two Saljuki era princes, Aboo Saeed Bijar, son of Sad, and Aboo Mansoor Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as the Kharaghan twin towers. Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the first monuments in Islamic architecture to include a non-conic two-layered dome.
Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in March 2003.EconomyA memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran–Iraq War.
Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz. Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power.Colleges and universities
Qazvin has four institutes of higher education:
Residential Towers like Ponak (536 units), Sky (Aseman), Elahieh and Bademestan (440 units) with 17 levels.
Tejarat tower with 28 levelsQazvin Shopping Complexes
City Star in Khayam Street
Iranian in Adl StreetBridges
Proma HypermarketNotable Qazvini'sQazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages.
There have been an abundance of scientists and mystics who lived in Qazvin, or came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and villages of the province. These include: