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Persia

ایران


Persian_Gulf_Kish_Island_Dolphin.jpg
Historical name for a region roughly coterminous with modern Iran.The term was used for centuries, chiefly in the West, and originally described a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis , Parsa or Parseh which was the name of an Indo-European nomadic people who migrated into the area 1000 BC; the use of the name was gradually extended by the ancient Greeks and other Western peoples to apply to the whole Iranian plateau. The people of Iran have always called their country Iran, and in 1935 the government requested that the name Iran be used instead of Persia. (Wikipedia) - Iran   (Redirected from Persia) "Persia" redirects here. For other uses, see Persia (disambiguation). This article is about the modern nation. For other uses, see Iran (disambiguation).
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Islamic Republic of Iran Official languages Spoken languages Religion Demonym Government Legislature Unification Area Population Currency Time zone Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD
Flag Emblem
Motto: 
  • استقلال. آزادی. جمهوری اسلامی
"Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic." (de facto)
Anthem: 
  • مهر خاوران
  • National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran
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Capital and largest city Tehran 35°41′N 51°25′E / 35.683°N 51.417°E / 35.683; 51.417
Persian
  • Persian
  • Azeri
  • Kurdish
  • Lurish
  • Gilaki
  • Mazandarani
  • Turkmen
  • Arabic
  • Baloch
  • Georgian
  • Armenian
  • Neo-Aramaic
Official: Shia Islam Other recognized religions:
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Christianity
  • Judaism
Iranian, Persian
Unitary presidential theocratic republic
 -  Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
 -  President Hassan Rouhani
 -  Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri
Islamic Consultative Assembly
 -  Median Empire c. 678 BCE 
 -  Achaemenid Empire 550 BCE 
 -  Sassanid Empire 224 CE 
 -  Safavid Empire 1501 
 -  Islamic Republic 1 April 1979 
 -  Current constitution 24 October 1979 
 -  Constitution amendment 28 July 1989 
 -  Total 1,648,195 km2 (18th) 636,372 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.7
 -  2013 estimate 77,176,930 (17th)
 -  Density 48/km2 (162rd) 124/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $974.406 billion (17th)
 -  Per capita $12,478
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $405.540 billion
 -  Per capita $5,193
Gini (2010) 38 medium
HDI (2013)  0.749 high · 75th
Rial (﷼) (IRR)
IRST (UTC+3:30)
 -  Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
yyyy/mm/dd (SH)
right
+98
IR
  • .ir
  • ایران.
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Iran (i/ɪˈrɑːn/ or /aɪˈræn/; Persian: ایران‎  ( listen)), also known as Persia (/ˈpɜrʒə/ or /ˈpɜrʃə/), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest nation in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world; with 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world''s 17th most populous nation. It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia and the Strait of Hormuz.

Iran is home to one of the world''s oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite kingdom in 3200–2800 BCE. The Iranian Medes unified the country into the first of many empires in 625 BCE, after which it became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. Iran reached the pinnacle of its power during the Achaemenid Empire (First Persian Empire) founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BCE, which at its greatest extent comprised major portions of the ancient world, stretching from parts of the Balkans (Bulgaria-Pannonia) and Thrace-Macedonia in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. The empire collapsed in 330 BCE following the conquests of Alexander the Great. The area eventually regained influence under the Parthian Empire and rose to prominence once more after the establishment of the Sasanian dynasty (Neo-Persian empire) in 224 CE, under which Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world along with the Byzantine Empire for the next four centuries.

Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism were largely replaced after Rashidun Muslims invaded Persia in 633 CE, and conquered it by 651 CE. Iran thereafter played a vital role in the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, producing numerous influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. The emergence in 1501 of the Safavid dynasty, which promoted the Twelver school of thought as the official religion, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history. It also culminated into tensions, which in 1514 led to the Battle of Chaldiran. Starting in 1736 under Nader Shah, Iran would for the last time rise to high prominence, reaching its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, and briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world. The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906 established the nation''s first parliament, which operated within a constitutional monarchy. Following a coup d''état instigated by the UK and the US in 1953, Iran gradually became autocratic. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression culminated in the Iranian Revolution, which led to the establishment of an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979.

Tehran is the capital and largest city, serving as the cultural, commercial, and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a major regional and middle power, exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven petroleum reserves. It hosts Asia''s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC. Its unique political system, based on the 1979 constitution, combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with a religious theocracy run by the country''s clergy, wherein the Supreme Leader wields significant influence. A multicultural nation comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shi''ites, the Iranian rial is its currency, and Persian is the official language.

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See All 16 items matching Persia in Media Gallery

The ancient world map of Eratosthenes from c. 194 BC reconstructed 19th century:.Bunbury, E.H. (1811-1895), A History of Ancient Geography among the Greeks and Romans from the Earliest Ages till the Fall of the Roman Empire. London: John Murray, 1883.
A map of Persia proper in 1867 showing the Persian Gulf before creation of Pakistan from the book THE SEVEN GREAT MONARCHIES OF THE ANCIENT EASTERN WORLD by George Rawlinson.
Map of Persia: Territorial Changes in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to British and Russian invasions. Behind Gulistan Treaty, Turkmenchai Treaty, Mc Mahon Arbitration, Treaty of Paris were orchestrated European conspiracies.
Painting shows Safavid Ambassador of Persia at the court of Louis XIV of France on Feb, 19, 1715. Wishing to reinforce exchanges with France, Shah Hossein sent an Embassy led by Mohammad Reza Beg.
Qajar era map off Persia in 1814 before the Great Game: Persian Gulf is seen as Gulf of Persia. Extent of provinces such as Gilan, Khuzestan, Mazandaran, and Khorasan are remarkable, alongside parts that were separated from the motherland later.
A Caravan of Silver arrives at the British Imperial Bank Persia. Qajar did not have its own banking system and the economy was based on finding resources (loans) to cover the royal court expenses.

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