The history of Ottoman-Safavid Empire relations started with the establishment of Safavid dynasty in Iran in the early 16th century. The initial Ottoman-Safavid conflict culminated in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and was followed by a century of border confrontation. In 1639, Safavid Iran and Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Zuhab which recognized Iraq in Ottoman control.
Until the 18th century, the struggle between Safavid Persian Shi''ism and the Ottoman version of Islamic orthodoxy had continued to remain an important dimension of the combative relationships between the two major empires. In the early 18th century, Persian-Ottoman peace negotiations introduced a new concept of inter-Muslim relations whereby sovereign states could co-exist as autonomous parts of the Islamic world community. Although the further relations were guided by the mutual fear of weakness and distrust, it wasn''t until 1847 when Qajar Iran and Ottoman Empire reached a substantial peace Treaty of Erzurum, starting a century of peace.