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NAJA

ناجا


Najafabad_Islamic_Azad_University.jpg
(Wikipedia) - Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes. Although there are several other genera that share the common name, Naja are the most recognized and most widespread group of snakes commonly known as cobras. The genus Naja consists of 20 to 22 species, but has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. They range throughout Africa, the Middle East, India, southeastern Asia, and Indonesia. Naja For other uses, see Naja (disambiguation). Cobras Indian cobra, N. naja Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Serpentes Family: Elapidae Genus: Naja Laurenti, 1768 Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes. Although several other genera share the common name, Naja species are the most recognized and most widespread group of snakes commonly known as cobras. The genus Naja consists of 20 to 22 species, but has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. They range throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Venom 4 Species 5 Taxonomy 6 References 7 External links Etymology The origin of this genus name is from the Old Indic nāga, cognate with English 'snake', Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-. Description Different Naja species vary in length and most are relatively slender-bodied snakes. Most species are capable of attaining lengths of 1.84 m (6.0 ft). Maximum lengths for some of the larger species of cobra are around 3.1 m (10 ft), with the forest cobra arguably being the longest species. All have a characteristic ability to raise the front quarters of their bodies off the ground and flatten their necks to appear larger to a potential predator. Venom All species in the genus Naja are capable of delivering a fatal bite to a human. Most species have strongly neurotoxic venom, which attacks the nervous system, causing paralysis, but many also have cytotoxic features which causes swelling and necrosis, and has a significant anticoagulant effect. Some also have cardiotoxic components to their venom. Several Naja species, referred to as spitting cobras, have a specialized venom delivery mechanism, in which their front fangs, instead of releasing venom through the tips (similar to a hypodermic needle), have a rifled opening in the front surface which allows the snake to propel the venom out of the mouth. While typically referred to as "spitting", the action is more like squirting. The range and accuracy with which they can shoot their venom varies from species to species, but it is used primarily as a defense mechanism. Once sprayed onto a victim's skin, the venom acts as a severe irritant. If it is introduced to the eye, it can cause a severe burning sensation and temporary or even permanent blindness if not cleaned out immediately and thoroughly. Murine subcutaneous LD50 values for some cobra species include 0.20 mg/kg for N. philippinensis (Philippine cobra), which is considered to be the most venomous species, 0.40 mg/kg for N. oxiana (Caspian cobra), 0.80 mg/kg for N. naja (Indian cobra), 1.15 mg/kg for N. haje (Egyptian cobra), 2.0 mg/kg for Naja nigricollis (black-necked spitting cobra), 0.72

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