Mithridates I,Mithridates 1st
مهرداد یکم ، مهرداد اول
Mehrdad / Mehrdad was the 6th king of the
Mehrdad 1st (ca. 195 BC? - 138 BC) was the "Great King" of
Parthia from (c. 171-137/8 BC)
He succeeded his brother
Farhad 1st. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca. 176 BC). Mehrdad 1 made Parthia into a major political power by expanding the empire to the east, south, and west. During his reign the
Herat (in 167 BC),
Babylonia (in 144 BC),
Media (in 141 BC) and
Persia (in 139 BC).
Mehrdad first expanded Parthia's control eastward by defeating King Eucratides of the
Bactrian Kingdom. This gave Parthia control over Bactria's territory west of the Arius River, the regions of
Aria (including the city of Herat in 167 BC).
"The satrapy Turiva and that of Aspionus were taken away from Eucratides by the Parthians." (Strabo XI.11.2)
These victories gave Parthia control of the overland trade routes between east and west (the
Silk Road and the
Persian Royal Road). This control of trade became the foundation of Parthia's wealth and power and was jealously guarded by the Arsacids, who attempted to maintain direct control over the lands through which the major trade routes passed.
In Persia in 139 BC, Mehrdad 1 captured the
Seleucid King Demetrius II, and held him captive for 10 years while consolidating his conquests. Demetrius II later married Mehrdad 1's daughter Rhodogune and had several children with her.
Parthian victories broke the tenuous link with
Greeks in the West that had sustained the Hellenistic kingdom of Greco-Bactria, yet Mehrdad 1 actively promoted
Hellenism in the areas he controlled and titled himself Philhellene ("friend of the Greeks") on his coins. The coins minted during his reign show the first appearance on Parthian coinage of a Greek-style portrait showing the royal diadem, the standard Greek symbol for kingship. Mehrdad 1 resumed minting coins, which had been suspended ever since Arsaces II of Parthia (211–191 BC) had been forced to submit to the Seleucid Antiochus III (223–187 BC) in 206 BC.
His name assigned him to the protection of
Mithra and carried the god's authority in some measure.
Mehrdad was killed in battle near
Tigris, fighting the resurgent Seleucid forces under Antiochus VII Sidetes; brother of Demetrius II.
Mehrdad 1's son, Farhad (138–128 BC), succeeded him on his death as Great King