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قره باغ ، قاراباخ

Karabakh is a geographic region in present-day eastern Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras. It includes three regions: Highland Karabakh (historical Artsakh, present-day Nagorno-Karabakh), Lowland Karabakh (the southern Kura-steppes), and a part of Syunik.The word "Karabakh" is generally said to originate from Turkic and Persian, and literally means "black garden". The place name is first mentioned in the Georgian Chronicles (Kartlis Tskhovreba), as well in Persian sources from the 13th and 14th centuries. The name became common after the 1230s, when the region was conquered by the Mongols. The first time the name was mentioned in medieval Armenian sources was in the 15th century, in Tovma Metsop'etsi's History of Tamerlane and His Successors.Lowland and Highland Karabakh populated with various Caucasian tribes were conquered by Armenians in the 2nd century BC and organized as the Artsakh province of the Kingdom of Armenia. However, it is possible that the region had earlier been part of Orontid Armenia from the 4th to 2nd centuries BC. After the 387 AD partition of Armenia, it passed to the kingdom of Caucasian Albania. The Arab invasions later led to the rise of several Armenian princes who came to establish their dominance in the region.In the 15th century, the German traveler Johann Schiltberger toured Lowland Karabakh and described it as a large and beautiful plain in Armenia. Highland Karabakh (Russian: Nagorno-Karabakh) or Artsakh was from 821 until the early 19th century ruled by the Armenian House of Khachen and its several lines, the latter Melikdoms of Karabakh. In 1747, Panah Javanshir, a local Turcoman chieftain, seized control of the region after the death of the Persian ruler Nader Shah, and both Lower Karabakh and Highland Karabakh comprised the new Karabakh khanate. Nevertheless Highland Karabakh was still ruled by its own hereditary princes, known as meliks, until the Russian annexation of the region in 1805.Under Russian rule, Karabakh (both Lowland and Highland) was a region with an area of 13,600 km2 (5,250 sq mi), with Shusha (Shushi) as its most prominent city. Its population consisted of Armenians and Muslims. Highland Karabakh was almost overwhelmingly Armenian in population according to an initial survey carried out by the Russians in 1823 and an official one published in 1836. In 1828 the Karabakh khanate was dissolved and in 1840 it was absorbed into the Kaspijskaya (Caspian) oblast, and subsequently, in 1846, made a part of Shemakhanskaya (Shamakha) Governorate. In 1876 it was made a part of the Elizavetpol Governorate, an administrative arrangement which remained in place until the Russian Empire collapsed in 1917.After the dissolution of Russian Empire Karabakh, Zangezur and Nakhjevan were disputed between newly established republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan. Fighting between two republics broke out. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, British troops occupied the South Caucasus. The British command affirmed Khosrov bey Sultanov (an appointee of the Azerbaijani government) as the provisional governor-general of Karabakh and Zangezur, pending a final decision by the Tags:Albania, Arab, Aras, Armenia, Armenian, Azerbaijan, British, Caspian, Caucasian, Caucasus, German, Javanshir, Karabagh, Nader Shah, Nakhjevan, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Persian, Russian, Shah, Shusha, Turcoman, World War I

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