هرمزگان ، استان هرمزگان
Hormozgan Province is one of the 30 provinces of
Iran. It is in the south of the country, facing
Oman. Its area is 70,697 km2, with capital is
Bandar Abbas. The province has 14 islands located in the
Persian Gulf, and 1,000 km of coastline.
The province has eleven major cities, namely: Bandar Abbas,
Bandar Lengeh, HajiAbbad, Minab,
Qeshm, Jask, Bastak, Bandar Khamir, Parsian(Gavbandi), roudan and Abumusa.
Hormozgan is known to have had settlements during the
Achaemenid era and when Nearchus passed through this region, recorded history of the main port of Hormozgan begins with
Ardeshir I of
Persia of the
The province is said to have been particularly prosperous between 241 BC and 211 BC, but is said to have grown even further in trade and commercial significance after the arrival of the
Marco Polo visited the port of Bandar Abbas in 1272 and 1293, and reported widespread trading in
Persian jewelry, the ivory and silk of Indo-
China, and pearls from
Bahrain in the Bazaars in the port of
In 1497, European colonialists landed in the region for the first time, headed by
Vasco da Gama. In 1508, the Portuguese, led by Afonso de
Albuquerque invaded the area with 7 warships, under the pretext of protecting their interests from
Egypt and Venice. The port of Hormuz was at this time considered a strategic port for commercial interests in the Persian Gulf.
Ismail I who was trying to counter the
Ottoman Empire to the west, was unable to save the port from the Portuguese, until
Shah Abbas I was finally able to drive them out of the Persian Gulf with the aid of the
British. The name of Bandar Abbas comes directly from the name of
Shah Abbas I.
The British, meanwhile were competing for influence in the region with
Dutch colonialists who finally invaded Qeshm island and dispatched warships to Bandar Abbas during the final years of Shah Abbas' reign. The Persian government was unable to defend itself against this attack. However, with the souring of British and Dutch relations, military tensions further grew in the region. The Dutch finally resorted to moving their base up to
The Amir of Khark,
Mir Mahna, was however able to defeat the Dutch forces at Khark, leaving the British firmly in charge of the entire region. Soon
Britain took control over the entire Persian Gulf via the interests of British
East India Company. The British adopted a policy of encouraging local autonomy throughout the Persian Gulf so as to prevent any possible formidable unified force from threatening their establishments in the Persian Gulf.
The strategic importance of the Persian Gulf further increased after
World War I with the discovery of oil in the region.