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He

وی ، او


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(Wikipedia) - He This article is about the English personal pronoun. For other uses, see He (disambiguation).

He (/ˈhiː/, unstressed /i/) is a masculine third-person, singular personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English, as well as being a personal pronoun in Middle English.

Personal pronouns in standard Modern English Singular Plural Subject Object Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive Subject Object Possessive determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive First Second Third Masculine Feminine Neuter Nonspecific
I me my mine myself we us our ours ourselves
you your yours yourself you your yours yourselves
he him his himself they them their theirs themselves
she her hers herself
it its itself
they them their theirs themself (themselves)

Contents

Usage People

"He" can be used as a substitution of a male''s name.

Animals

"He" and "she" are often used to refer to domesticated animals and sometimes non-domesticated animals of the respective sex.

Gender neutral See also: Gender-neutral_pronoun § English

A study has shown that "there was a rather extended period of time in the history of the English language when the choice of a supposedly masculine personal pronoun (him) said nothing about the gender or sex of the referent."

The use of "he" to refer to a person of unknown gender was often prescribed by manuals of style and school textbooks from the early 18th century until around the 1960s, an early example of which is Anne Fisher''s 1745 grammar book "A New Grammar".

This may be compared to usage of the word man to humans in general.

Gender-specific pronouns were also prescribed when one might presume that most members of some group are the same gender (although in recent times, such presumptions are sometimes seen as offensive).

Other

The pronoun He, with a universally capitalized H, is often used to refer to the Supreme Being, or in Christian contexts, to Jesus Christ; "It", with a capitalized I, is also used when speaking of the Supreme Being''s nature or Godhead, or in Christian contexts, to refer to the Logos; capitalized "He" and "It" have both been used to refer to the Holy Spirit. In Catholic Christian circles, the Blessed Sacrament is also referred to with the capitalized pronoun "It".

Gender Main article: Gender in English

The gender system in Modern English is generally natural, semantic and logical; however it is most similar to languages whose gender systems primarily distinguish between the animate and inanimate, and between the personal and impersonal. In the table RP stands for relative pronoun and PP for personal pronoun.

Gender classes in Modern English
Gender Class Example RP PP
animate personal 1. male brother who he
2. female sister who she
3. dual doctor who he/she, he, they
generic 4. common baby who which he/she/it it
5. collective family which who it they
impersonal 6. higher male animal bull which (who) he/it he
7. higher female animal cow which (who) she/it she
8. lower animal ant which it (he/she)
inanimate 9. inanimate carbon rod which it

Notes: RP is relative pronoun and PP personal pronoun. Alternatives are presented in three ways: slash (/) — used equally; above & below — first preferred; parentheses "()" — disputed or unusual usage.

Etymology Indo-European

The reconstructed Indo-European language provides a demonstrative pronoun ko.

Germanic

English is a development of the West Germanic language family.

Old English Old English pronouns Nominative IPA Accusative Dative Genitive 1st Singular Dual Plural 2nd Singular Dual Plural 3rd Singular Masculine Neuter Feminine Plural
mec / mē mīn
wit uncit unc uncer
ūsic ūs ūser / ūre
þū þec / þē þē þīn
ġit incit inc incer
ġē ēowic ēow ēower
hine him his
hit hit him his
hēo hīe hiere hiere
hīe hīe heom heora

Speakers of Old English (OE) considered each noun to have a grammatical gender — masculine, feminine or neuter. Pronouns were generally (but not always) selected to have the same grammatical gender as the noun they referred to. For example, dæg ''day'') was masculine, so a masculine pronoun was used when referring to a day or days. The pronoun "he" was written he, as in Present-Day English (PrDE), but pronounced hē , rather like PrDE hay.

Middle English Personal pronouns in Middle English Singular Plural Nominative Oblique Genitive Nominative Oblique Genitive First Second Third Impersonal Masculine Feminine
ik / ich / I me my(n) we us oure
þou / thou þee / thee þy(n) / thy(n) ȝe / ye ȝow / you ȝower / your
hit hit / him his he þei / they hem þem / them her þeir / their
he him his
ȝho / scho / sche hire hire

There was one change to the inflection of the masculine pronoun in Middle English. The OE dative form him replaced the OE accusative hine . This meant that, in Middle English, there was no distinction between masculine and impersonal, except in the subject case of the third-person singular, until it from hit replaced him in the object case of the impersonal. Some people believe "there was rather an extended period of time in the history of the English language when the choice of a supposedly masculine personal pronoun (him) said nothing about the gender or sex of the referent."

See also
  • v
  • t
  • e
Modern English personal pronouns
  • I
  • he
  • she
  • it
  • one
  • we
  • you
  • they

(standard)

  • y''all
  • ye
  • yinz

(non-standard)

Tags:Christ, Christian, Gender, Jesus, Jesus Christ, Wikipedia




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