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Ghashghayi

Qashqai

قشقایی


Ghashghayi_Ashayer_Tribe_Woman_Carpet.jpg
Ghashghayi people originate from an ancient Iranian tribe living mostly in Fars province.Ghashghayi are a people in Iran speaking a Turkic language. The Ghashghayi language is closely related to Azerbaijani. Ghashghayis mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan, but especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars province.The Ghashghayi were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Ghashghayi travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, has now settled, or is partially settled. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s.The Ghashghayi are made up of a number of tribes and sub-tribes including the Amalaeh, Darreh-Shuri, Kashkuli, Shesh Baluki, Farsimadan, Qaracheh, Rahimi and Safi -Khani.Historically, the Turkic languages are believed to have arrived in Iran from Central Asia from the 11th or 12th centuries onwards. Ghashghayi tribe may be a conglomeration of clans of different ethnic origins, Lori, Kurdish, Arab and Turkic. In Iran, all such tribes are called Ashayer. The yearly migrations of the Ghashghayi, seeking fresh pastures, drive them from the south to the north, where they move to their summer quarters "Yeylagh" in the high mountains; and from the north to the south, to their winter quarters, "Gheshlagh". In summer, the Ghashghayi flocks graze on the slopes of the Kooh-e-Dinar; a group of mountains that are part of the Zagros chain. In autumn the Ghashghayi break camp, and by stages leave the highlands. They winter in the warmer regions near Firoozabad, Kazeroon, Jerreh, Farashband, on the banks of the river Mound, till, in April, they start once more on their yearly trek. The migration is organized and controlled by the Ghashghayi Chief. The Tribes carefully avoid villages and towns such as Shiraz and Isfahan, lest their flocks, estimated at seven million head, might cause serious damage. The annual migration is the largest of any Persian tribe. The Ghashghayi were a significant political force in Iran during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During World War I they were influenced by the German consular official Wilhelm Wassmuss and sided with the Germans. During World War II the Ghashghayis organized resistance against the British occupation forces and received some help from the Germans, once again becoming the major political force in southern Persia. In 1945–1946 there was a major rebellion of a number of tribal confederacies, including the Ghashghayis, who fought valiantly until the invading Russians were repelled. The Ghashghayis revolted during 1962–1964 due to the land reforms of the White Revolution. The revolt was put down and within a few years many Ghashghayis had settled. Most of the tribal leaders were sent to exile. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979 the living leader Khosrau Khan Ghashghayi moved back to I (Wikipedia) - Qashqai language   (Redirected from Ghashghayi) Qashqai Native to Region Ethnicity Native speakersLanguage familyWriting system Language codes ISO 639-3 Glottolog Linguasphere
Qaşqay dili
Iran
Fars , Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari , Isfahan
Qashqai
1.5 million  (1997)
Turkic
  • Oghuz
    • Azerbaijani
      • Qashqai
Persian
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qash1240
part of 44-AAB-a

Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Ghashghayi, Qašqāʾī, Qashqa''i, and Qashqayi) is a Western Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars region of Iran. It is known to speakers as Turki. Estimates of the number of Qashqai speakers vary. Ethnologue gives a figure of 1.5 million. The Qashqai language is closely related to Azerbaijani, and some linguists consider it to be a dialect of that language.

Like the Azeri language in Iran, Qashqai uses the Persian modification of the Arabic script.

Notes
  • ^ Qashqai at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  • ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Qashqa''i". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
  • ^ Qašqāʾī tribal confederacy: Language at Encyclopædia Iranica, by Michael Knüppel
  • ^ Azeri Turkish at Encyclopædia Iranica, by Gerhard Doerfer
  • ^ Qašqāʾi Tribal Confederacy, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  • ^ Ethnologue report
  • Qashqai language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
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    Tags:Afshar, Anatolian, Anthropology, Arab, Arabic, Armenian, Asia, Assyrian, Azeri, Bakhtiari, Balkan, British, Caspian, Central Asia, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Dinar, Fars, German, Ghashghayi, Gilaki, ISO, Iran, Iranian, Iranica, Isfahan, Islamic, Islamic Revolution, Kazeroon, Khan, Khazar, Khosrau, Khuzestan, Kurdish, Languages of Iran, Ottoman, Persia, Persian, Persian Gulf, Revolution, Safi, Shiraz, Talysh, Tatar, Turkish, Uyghur, Uzbek, White Revolution, Wikipedia, Wilhelm, Wilhelm Wassmuss, World War I, World War II, Zagros





    See All 4 items matching Ghashghayi in Media Gallery

    Two Women from the Iranian Ghashghayi Ashayer(Tribe) as engaged in producing a Carpet.The Ghashghayi are famous for carpets, kilims and other woven wool products. They are sometimes referred to as Shiraz as Shiraz is the primary marketplace. Inside a Ghashghayi Ashayer Tribal Tent. Women are busy weaving Carpets while a young man I s playing Music.Ghashghayi people, famous for their magnificent pile carpets, originate from several ancient Iranian tribes living mostly in Fars province. At a resting Camp of Ghashghayi Ashayer Tribe during their Migration. Camels and horses carry some of the heavy load while modern Ashayer prefer to send most of it by truck together with the elderly and children. 1925 Ghashghayi tribe in their Winter tent hosting members of the oil Company
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