National lawmaking body of the United States
(consisting of the Senate
and the House of Representatives) (Wikipedia
) - Congress
This article is about the forum. For systems of government similar to the U.S. federal government, see presidential system. For other uses, see Congress (disambiguation).
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, independent organizations (such as trade unions), or groups.
The term was chosen for the United States Congress to emphasize the status of each state represented there as a self-governing unit. Subsequent to the use of congress by the U.S. legislature, the term has been adopted by many states within unions, and by unitary nation-states in the Americas, to refer to their legislatures. Relationships in congress have historically proven to be controversial in any country, with a prime example transpiring in recent years between U.S. President Barack Obama and Speaker of the House John Boehner.
- 1 Political congress
- 1.1 Congresses of nations
- 1.2 Congresses within nations
- 1.3 Association congresses
- 1.4 Historic congresses
- 1.5 Other countries with Congresses
- 1.6 Political parties and organizations
- 1.7 Party congresses
- 1.8 Miscellaneous political congresses
- 2 Labor congresses
- 3 Non-political congresses
- 3.1 Scientific congress
- 3.2 Athletic sports congress
- 3.3 Chess congress
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Political congress Congresses of nations
The following congresses were formal meetings of representatives of different nations:
- The Congress of Berlin (1878)
- The Congress of Gniezno (1000)
- The Congress of Panama, an 1826 meeting organized by Simon Bolivar.
- The Congress of Tucumán (1816)
- The Congress of Vienna (1815)
- The Congress of the Council of Europe.
Congresses within nations
Countries with Congresses and presidential systems:
- The Congress of Guatemala (Spanish: Congreso de la República) is the unicameral legislature of Guatemala.
- The Congress of Honduras (Spanish: Congreso nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of Honduras.
- The Congress of Mexico (Spanish: Congreso de la Unión) is the legislative branch of Mexican government.
- The Congress of Paraguay is the bicameral legislature of Paraguay.
- The Peoples Congress of Albania is the legislature of Albania.
- The National Congress of Kosovo is the legislature of Kosovo.
- The Congress of the Argentine Nation (Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina.
- The Congress of the Dominican Republic is the bicameral legislature of the Dominican Republic.
- The Palau National Congress (Palauan: Olbiil era Kelulau) is the bicameral legislative branch of the Republic of Palau.
- The Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia is the unicameral legislature of the Federated States of Micronesia.
- The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the legislative branch of the Philippine government.
- The Congress of the Republic of Peru (Spanish: Congreso de la República) is the unicameral legislature of Peru.
- The Congress of the United States is the bicameral legislative branch of the United States federal government.
- The National Congress of Bolivia is the national legislature of Bolivia.
- The National Congress of Brazil (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) is Brazil's legislature.
- The National Congress of Chile (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of Chile.
- The National Congress of Ecuador is the unicameral legislature of Ecuador.
- Congress of Mauritania
- ICCA Congress & Exhibition
- The Continental Congress (1774-1781) was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution.
- The Congress of the Confederation (1781-1789) was the legislature of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
- The National Congress of Belgium was a temporary legislative assembly in 1830, which created a constitution for the new state.
Other countries with Congresses
- In France, the Congress of France (congrès) denotes a formal and rarely convened joint session of both houses of Parliament to ratify an amendment to the Constitution or to listen to a speech by the President of the French Republic.
- Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados), the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
- The legislature of the People's Republic of China is known in English as the National People's Congress. The PRC is nevertheless not a congressional system.
- The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union was the legislature and nominal supreme institution of state power in the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991.
- Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, a Russian institution modelled after USSR one, existed in 1990—1993.
Political parties and organizations
Congress is included in the name of several political parties, especially those in former British colonies:
- People's National Congress
- Indian National Congress
- All India Trinamool Congress
- Kerala Congress
- Nationalist Congress Party
- Tamil Maanila Congress
- YSR Congress
- BSR Congress
- NR Congress
- Basotho Congress Party
- Lesotho Congress for Democracy
- Lesotho People's Congress
- Peoples Revolutionary Congress Pakistan
- National Congress (Sudan)
- National Congress of Fiji
- Canary Islands
- National Congress of the Canaries
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- African National Congress
- Congress of the People
- Pan-Africanist Congress
- Sri Lanka
- All Ceylon Tamil Congress
- Sri Lanka Muslim Congress
- Ngwane National Liberatory Congress
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Ugandan People's Congress
Many political parties also have a party congress every few years to make decisions for the party and elect governing bodies. This is sometimes called a political convention.
Miscellaneous political congresses
- National Congress of American Indians
- Iraqi National Congress
- Congress of Racial Equality
- Continental Congress 2.0
- Congress of Industrial Organizations
- Trade Union Congress of the Philippines
- Trades Union Congress
Non-political congresses Scientific congress
Congress is an alternative name for a large national or international academic conference.
For instance, the World Congress on Men's Health WCMH is an annual meeting on men's medical issues.
Athletic sports congress
Organizations in some athletic sports, such as bowling, have historically been named "congresses". The predecessors to the United States Bowling Congress, formed in 1995, were the male-only American Bowling Congress founded in 1895, and the female-only Women's International Bowling Congress founded in 1927, which combined in 1995 to form the USBC.
Chess congressChess congress
A Chess congress is a chess tournament, in one city, where a large number of contestants gather to play competitive chess over a limited period of time; typically one day to one week.
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