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Argentine Republic, country in southern South America : Little is known about native population before the European invasion. The area was explored for Spain by Sebastian Cabot (1526-30); by 1580 Asuncion, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires had been settled. At first attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru (1620), it was later included with regions of modern Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, whose capital was Buenos Aires (1776). With the establishment of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1816, Argentina became independent from Spain, but its boundaries were not set until the early 20th century. Foreign back coups rattled Argentina for quite a while. In 1943 the government was overthrown by the military; Col. Juan Peron took control in 1946. He in turn was overthrown in 1955. He returned in 1973 after two decades of turmoil. His second wife, Isabel, became president on his death in 1974 but lost power after another military coup in 1976. The military government tried to take the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) in 1982 but was defeated by the British in the Falkland Islands War, with the result that the government returned to civilian rule in 1983. The government of Raul Alfonsin worked to end the human rights abuses that characterized the former regimes. Hyperinflation, however, led to public riots and Alfonsín's electoral defeat in 1989; his Peronist successor, Carlos Menem, instituted laissez-faire economic policies. In 1999 Fernando de la Rua of the Alliance coalition was elected president, and his administration struggled with rising unemployment, heavy foreign debt, and government corruption. (Wikipedia) - For alternative meanings, see Argentina (disambiguation) and Argentine (disambiguation). Argentine RepublicRepu00FAblica Argentina File:Flag of Argentina. svg File:Coat of arms of Argentina. svg Motto: "En uniu00F3n y libertad" "In Unity and Freedom" Anthem: "Himno Nacional Argentino" "Argentine National Anthem"File:United States Navy Band - Himno Nacional Argentino. ogg File:Argentina (orthographic projection). svg Capital(and largest city)Buenos Aires Official language(s) Spanish Recognised regional languages Araucano, Guaranu00ED, Quechua, Welsh Ethnic groups (2005) 86.4% European 8.5% Mestizo3.3% Arab1.6% Amerindian0.4% Asian and others Demonym Argentine, Argentinian, Argentinean Government Federal representative presidential republic - President Cristina Fernu00E1ndez de Kirchner - Vice President and President of the Senate Julio Cobos - Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti Legislature Congress - Upper House Senate - Lower House Chamber of Deputies Independence from Spain - May Revolution 25 May 1810 - Declared 9 July 1816 - Current constitution May 1, 1853 Area - Total 2,766,890 km 1,068,302 sq mi - Water (%) 1.1 Population - 2010 census 40,091,359 - Density 14.49/km 37.53/sq mi GDP 2010 estimate - Total $642.4 billion - Per capita $15,854 GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate - Total $370.3 billion - Per capita $9,138 Gini (2010) 41.4 (high) HDI (2010) u25B2 0.775 (high) Currency Peso Time zone ART Date formats dd. mm. yyyy Drives on the right (trains ride on the left) Internet TLD . ar Calling code +54 Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. It is the eighth-largest country

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