اردبیل ، آرتاویل
Ardebil is a city NW
Iran in E
Ardebil is a historical city. The name Ardebil probably comes from the
Zoroastrian name of "Artavil" which means a holy place. Ardebil is the center of Ardebil Province. The dominant majority of whom are ethnic Azerbaijanis. Notable for its silk and carpet trade tradition, the ancient Ardebil Carpets are considered some of the best of the classical
Persian carpet creations. Ardebil is also known as the seat of a World Heritage Site: the sanctuary and tomb of
Sheikh Safiadddin, eponym of the
Ardebil is about 70 km from the
Caspian Sea, 210 km from the city of
Tabriz. It has an average altitude of 1263 m and total area of 18.011 km².
Neighboring on the
Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, this city is of great political and economical significance.
The province of Ardebil has been blessed with splendid natural beauty and numerous sights.
It is located on an open plain 1,500 m above sea level, just east of Mount Sabalan (4,811 m), where cold spells occur until late spring.
The province is believed to be as old as the
Achaemenid (ca. 550–330 BC). It is mentioned in the
Avesta, where Prophet
Zoroaster was born by the river
Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains. During
Parthian era the city had a special importance among the cities of
Muslim historians attribute foundation of Ardebil to king
Pirouz 1st of
Sassanid Empire. The Persian poet
Ferdowsi also credits the foundation of the city to Pirouz I. Ardebil suffered some damages caused by occasional raids of
Huns between 4th to 6th century AD. Pirouz repaired those damages and fortified the city. Pirouz made Ardebil the residential of provincial governor (Marzban:
Border Keeper) of Azarbaijan.
Arab conquest of Iran, Ardebil was the largest city in North Western Iran, and remained so until the
Mongol invasion period. Ardebilis fought the Mongols three times; however the city fell after the third attempt by Mongols. They massacred not only the Ardebil residents but inhabitants of neighboring villages and killing everyone they could find. Incursions of Mongols and Georgians left the city in ruins for nearly three centuries till the advent of
Shah Ismail 1st started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from here, but consequently announced Tabriz as his capital in AD 1500. Yet Ardebil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times. She was sacked by Ottomans 14 times between 1514–722 and in 1915 and by Russians in 1813, 1828 and in 1916.
On 28 February 1997, a destructive earthquake hit the Ardebil area. At least 965 people were killed, 2,600 injured, 36,000 homeless, 12,000 houses damaged or destroyed and 160,000 livestock were killed. Severe damage was observed to roads, electrical power lines, communications and water distribution systems around Ardebil.
Climate is cold and semi-arid; many tourists come to the region for its relatively cool climate during the hot summer months. The winters are long and bitter cold, with a temperature plummeting to -25 °C. The annual rainfall is around 380 mm.
Population (Metropolitan): about 650,000
Language: The majority of the population speaks Azeri Turkish; however, most of Ardebil's population could understand and speaks Persian as well.
Attractions of Ardebil:
The complex of
Safiaddin Ardebili is a World Heritage Site, comprising of the following components: the mausoleums of Sheikh Safi and Shah Ismail 1, Chini khaneh (meaning the house of chinaware), a mosque, Jannat Sara (meaning the house of paradise), Khaneqhah (the house of Dervishes),
Cheragh Khaneh (the house of lamps), Shahid khaneh (the house of martyrs) and Chelleh Khaneh (the place where devotees shut themselves up during the forty days of Lent). The mausoleum of Sheikh Safi, the dome of which is called "
Allah-Allah" has an octagonal interior.
Masjid Jameh Ruins of once magnificent and unique Mosque.
Mirza Ali Akbar mosque and school complex dates back to
Ardebil bazaar: This beautiful Persian bazaar was built during Safavid period and in addition to main bazaar hall with open vaults has a
Hamam and a small yet mystifying mosque.
Ardebil bridges Ardebil hosts numerous historical bridges namely Pol-e Gilandeh, Pol-e Nayer, Pol-e Haft Cheshmeh, Pol-e Panj Cheshmeh and Pol-e Shesh Cheshmeh and Qarah Soo Bridge, most were built during Safavid era.
The mausoleum of Emamzadeh Saleh was built 250 years ago.
Saint Mary Church: This
Armenian Orthodox Church has a beautiful wooden main door and painted dome built in 1876.
Mausoleum of Sheikh Jebra'il located 2 km north of Ardebil
Being a city of great antiquity, the origins of Ardebil go back 4000 to 6000 years (according to historical research in this city). This city was the capital of Azerbaijan province in different times, but its golden age was in the Safavid period.
Many hot springs and beautiful natural landscapes are in Ardebil and around which attract tourists. The mineral springs of Ardebil (Beele-Darreh, Sareyn, Sardabeh and Booshloo) are notable throughout Iran for their medicinal qualities.
Many beautiful lakes: the largest of which are Neor, Shorabil, ShoorGel, NouShahr and Aloocheh that are the habitats of some species of birds. The beautiful Lake Neor is located in a mountainous area 48 km south-east of the city of Ardebil. It covers an area of 2.1 km² and has an average depth of 3 meters. It is fed by springs in the lake bed.
Attractions and Descriptions:
Lake Shorabil: Located in a hillside south of the city of Ardebil and covers an area of 640,000 m². The surface of the lake is covered with a thin white layer of minerals, being useful for healing skin diseases and rheumatism. Near the lake there is the leisure complex of Shorabil.
Baliqly Chay River: Meaning "a river with many fish" in Azeri language, this river originates from the Sabalan Mountains and passes through Ardebil city. As a result, many villages and townships have settled around this river. It also irrigates much of the agricultural lands in this province.
Sabalan (Savalan) mountain: Sabalan is an inactive stratovolcano in Meshkinshahr Ardebil province of northwestern Iran about 20 miles west of
Ardabil. Sabalan is the third highest mountain in Iran and a permanent crater lake has formed at the summit. Sabalan has a ski resort (Alvares) and different tourist areas such as the Sarein spa. The mountain is known for its beautiful vistas, including the
Shirvan gorge, where few climbers ever venture.
The economy of Ardebil is partially agricultural, partially tourist based, with some industries in operation.
Iranian government in 2006 announced plans to build "the largest textile factory of its kind in the
Middle East" in Ardebil.
Notable people from Ardebil:
Arts and music:
Javad Alizadeh, cartoonist.
Nasrollah Nasehpoor, singer in Iranian classical vocalists.
Rubaba Muradova, opera, folk singer Maqam.
Clergy and religious
Mousavi Ardebili, Iranian politician.
Rahim Moazzen Zadeh Ardebili, son and successor of Abdul Karim Moazzen Zadeh Ardebili, recorded his famous Azan in 1955
Sheikh Safiaddin Ardebili, Spiritual leader in 13th century.
Khalkhali, Iranian clergy known as hangman for brief executions after the Revolution.
Poets and writers:
Madina Gulgun, Azerbaijani poet.
Mir Jalal Pashayev, writer and literary critic.
Sadrol Mamalek Ardebili, writer.
Politicians and reformers
Babak Khorramdin, ancient revolutionary leader fighting the
Abbasid Caliphate in Iran.
Ismail I, founder of the Safavid
Jafar Pishevari, founder and chairman of separatist and communist Azerbaijan People's Government, created and supported by
Soviet occupational forces in north-western Iran.
Rahman Dadman, former Minister of Roads and Transportation of Iran.
Sayyid hossein Ardebili, member of Democrat party in
Rahim Aliabadi, Men’s
Ali Daei, football player
Hossein Rezazadeh, weightlifter.
Yahya Golmohammadi, football player.
Karim Ansarifard, youngest football player in Team Melli Iran to score the most goals.