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    * 1930s *

    دهه 1930


    Tehran_Pahlavi_Doshantappeh_Plane_1930s.jpg
    (Wikipedia) - 1930s "''30s" and "thirties" redirect here. For decades comprising years 30–39 of other centuries, see List of decades.From left, clockwise: Dorothea Lange''s photo of the homeless Florence Thompson show the effects of the Great Depression; Due to the extreme drought conditions, the farms become dry and the Dust Bowl spreads through America; The Canton Operation during the Second Sino-Japanese War; Aviator Amelia Earhart becomes an American flight icon; German dictator Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party attempted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in Europe, which culminated in 1939 when Germany invaded Poland, leading to the outbreak of World War II; The Hindenburg explodes over a small New Jerseian airfield, causing 36 deaths and effectively ending commercial airship travel; Mohandas Gandhi walks to the Indian Ocean in the protest Salt March of 1930.
    Millennium: 2nd millennium
    Centuries: 19th century – 20th century – 21st century
    Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s – 1930s – 1940s 1950s 1960s
    Years: 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
    Categories: Births – Deaths – Architecture Establishments – Disestablishments

    The 1930s (normally pronounced Nineteen-Thirties or Thirties) was a decade that began on January 1, 1930 and ended on December 31, 1939.

    After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the largest stock market crash in American history, most of the decade was consumed by an economic downfall called the Great Depression that had a traumatic effect worldwide. In response, authoritarian regimes emerged in several countries in Europe and South America, in particular the Third Reich in Germany. Weaker states such as Ethiopia, China, and Poland were invaded by expansionist world powers, the last of these attacks leading to the outbreak of the Second World War a few months before the end of the decade. The 1930s also saw a proliferation of new technologies, especially in the fields of intercontinental aviation, radio, and film.

    Contents

    Politics and wars
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    WarsThe Colombian Army countering a Peruvian attack during the ColombiaPeru WarJapanese naval landing forces blasting Chinese pillbox and marching during the Canton Operation in 1938. Internal conflicts Major political changesThe rise of NazismGerman dictator Adolf Hitler (right) and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini (left) pursue agendas of territorial expansion for their countries in the 1930s, eventually leading to the outbreak of World War II in 1939.

    United States

    New Deal: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, 18 May 1933 Colonization Decolonization and independence Disasters
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    The German dirigible airship Hindenburg exploding in 1937.The Dust Bowl dust storm approaches Stratford, Texas, in 1935.

    Assassinations
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    Alexander I of Yugoslavia

    The 1930s were marked by several notable assassinations:

    International issues EuropeSoviet famine of 1932–33. Starved peasants in the streets of Kharkiv, 1933. Africa

    Hertzog of South Africa, whose National Party had won the 1929 election alone, after splitting with the Labour Party, received much of the blame for the devastating economic impact of the depression.

    AmericasAmelia Earhart in 1935. AsiaMohandas Gandhi on the Salt March in 1930. Australia EconomicsCCC workers constructing road, 1933. Over 3 million unemployed young men were taken out of the cities and placed into 2600+ work camps managed by the CCC.
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    Technology

    Many technological advances occurred in the 1930s, including:

    Popular culture Radio Music
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    Main article: 1930s in music Film
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    Main article: 1930s in film

    In the art of film making, the Golden Age of Hollywood entered a whole decade, after the advent of talking pictures ("talkies") in 1927 and full-color films in 1930: more than 50 classic films were made in the 1930s: most notable were Gone With The Wind and The Wizard of Oz.

    Sports Architecture
    This section requires expansion. (January 2010)
    See also: Category:1930s architectureThe Empire State Building became the world''s tallest building when completed in 1931. Literature and art Visual arts See also: Social Realism and History of painting

    Social Realism became an important art movement during the Great Depression in the United States in the 1930s. Social realism generally portrayed imagery with socio-political meaning. Other related American artistic movements of the 1930s were American scene painting and Regionalism which were generally depictions of rural America, and historical images drawn from American history. Precisionism with its depictions of industrial America was also a popular art movement during the 1930s in the USA. During the Great Depression the art of Photography played an important role in the Social Realist movement. The work of Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Margaret Bourke-White, Lewis Hine, Edward Steichen, Gordon Parks, Arthur Rothstein, Marion Post Wolcott, Doris Ulmann, Berenice Abbott, Aaron Siskind, Russell Lee, Ben Shahn (as a photographer) among several others were particularly influential.

    The Works Progress Administration part of the Roosevelt Administration''s New Deal sponsored the Federal Art Project, the Public Works of Art Project, and the Section of Painting and Sculpture which employed many American artists and helped them to make a living during the Great Depression.

    Mexican muralism was a Mexican art movement that took place primarily in the 1930s. The movement stands out historically because of its political undertones, the majority of which of a Marxist nature, or related to a social and political situation of post-revolutionary Mexico. Also in Latin America Symbolism and Magic Realism were important movements.

    In Europe during the 1930s and the Great Depression, Surrealism, late Cubism, the Bauhaus, De Stijl, Dada, German Expressionism, Symbolist and modernist painting in various guises characterized the art scene in Paris and elsewhere.

    People World leadersEmperor Hirohito in 1935. He was the last divine Emperor of JapanAdolf Hitler wins a popular election and then establishes a dictatorship in Germany whose expansionist ambitions lead to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.Franklin D. Roosevelt, as President of the United States initiates major economic reform in the United States.Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascist Italy from 1922 to 1943.Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Politics Sports figures Global Joe Louis American world heavyweight boxing champion.Joe DiMaggio, center fielder for the New York YankeesJesse Owens shook racial stereotypes both with Nazis and segregationists in the USA at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.Barney RossUnited States See also: History of baseball in the United States EntertainersJudy Garland as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939)Clark Gable as Rhett Butler in the trailer for Gone with the Wind (1939)Walt Disney introduces each of the Seven Dwarfs in a scene from the original 1937 Snow White Musicians Influential artists Painters and sculptors
    • José Clemente Orozco
    • Anni Albers
    • Josef Albers
    • Hans Arp
    • Milton Avery
    • Romare Bearden
    • Paula Modersohn-Becker
    • Max Beckmann
    • Thomas Hart Benton
    • Max Bill
    • Isabel Bishop
    • Marcel Breuer
    • Patrick Henry Bruce
    • Paul Cadmus
    • Marc Chagall
    • John Steuart Curry
    • Salvador Dalí
    • Stuart Davis
    • Charles Demuth
    • Otto Dix
    • Theo van Doesburg
    • Arthur Dove
    • Marcel Duchamp
    • Max Ernst
    • David Alfaro Siqueiros
    • Philip Evergood
    • Lyonel Feininger
    • Joaquín Torres García
    • Alberto Giacometti
    • Arshile Gorky
    • John D. Graham
    • George Grosz
    • Philip Guston
    • Marsden Hartley
    • Hans Hofmann
    • Edward Hopper
    • Johannes Itten
    • Frida Kahlo
    • Wassily Kandinsky
    • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
    • Paul Klee
    • Oskar Kokoschka
    • Käthe Kollwitz
    • Willem de Kooning
    • Walt Kuhn
    • Jacob Lawrence
    • Fernand Léger
    • Andrew Loomis
    • Reginald Marsh
    • André Masson
    • Henri Matisse
    • Joan Miró
    • Piet Mondrian
    • Gabriele Münter
    • Georgia O''Keeffe
    • Francis Picabia
    • Pablo Picasso
    • Horace Pippin
    • Diego Rivera
    • Ben Shahn
    • Charles Sheeler
    • David Smith
    • Isaac Soyer
    • Rafael Soyer
    • Chaim Soutine
    • Rufino Tamayo
    • Yves Tanguy
    • Grant Wood
    • N.C. Wyeth
    • Andrew Wyeth
    Muralists Photography

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